2007年3月17日星期六

中学英语语法全集(人教版)

冠词和数词

2.1 不定冠词的用法


  冠词是虚词,本身不能单独使用,也没有词义,它用在名词的前面,帮助指明名词的含义。英语中的冠词有三种,一种是定冠词(the Definite Article),另一种是不定冠词(the Indefinite Article),还有一种是零冠词(Zero Article)。
  不定冠词a (an)与数词one 同源,是"一个"的意思。a用于辅音音素前,一般读作[e],而an则用于元音音素前,一般读做[en]。
 1) 表示"一个",意为one;指某人或某物,意为a certain。
   A Mr. Ling is waiting for you.


 2) 代表一类人或物。
   A knife is a tool for cutting with.
   Mr. Smith is an engineer.


 3) 词组或成语。
   a little / a few / a lot / a type of / a pile / a great many / many a / as a rule / in a hurry / in a minute / in a word / in a short while / after a while / have a cold / have a try / keep an eye on / all of a sudden

2.1 不定冠词的用法

  冠词是虚词,本身不能单独使用,也没有词义,它用在名词的前面,帮助指明名词的含义。英语中的冠词有三种,一种是定冠词(the Definite Article),另一种是不定冠词(the Indefinite Article),还有一种是零冠词(Zero Article)。
  不定冠词a (an)与数词one 同源,是"一个"的意思。a用于辅音音素前,一般读作[e],而an则用于元音音素前,一般读做[en]。
 1) 表示"一个",意为one;指某人或某物,意为a certain。
   A Mr. Ling is waiting for you.


 2) 代表一类人或物。
   A knife is a tool for cutting with.
   Mr. Smith is an engineer.


 3) 词组或成语。
   a little / a few / a lot / a type of / a pile / a great many / many a / as a rule / in a hurry / in a minute / in a word / in a short while / after a while / have a cold / have a try / keep an eye on / all of a sudden

2.2 定冠词的用法

  定冠词the与指示代词this,that同源,有"那(这)个"的意思,但较弱,可以和一个名词连用,来表示某个或某些特定的人或东西。
 1)特指双方都明白的人或物:
   Take the medicine. 把药吃了。
 2)上文提到过的人或事:
   He bought a house. I've been to the house.
   他买了幢房子。我去过那幢房子。
 3)指世上独一物二的事物:
  the sun, the sky, the moon, the earth
 4)单数名词连用表示一类事物,如:the dollar 美元;
the fox 狐狸;或与形容词或分词连用,表示一类人:the rich 富人; the living 生者。
 5)用在序数词和形容词最高级,及形容词only, very, same等前面:
   Where do you live? I live on the second floor.  你住在哪?我住在二层。
   That's the very thing I've been looking for.  那正是我要找的东西。
 6)与复数名词连用,指整个群体:
  They are the teachers of this school.指全体教师)
  They are teachers of this school.  (指部分教师)
 7)表示所有,相当于物主代词,用在表示身体部位的名词前:
  She caught me by the arm.. 她抓住了我的手臂。
 8)用在某些由普通名词构成的国家名称、机关团体、阶级、等专有名词前:
  the People's Republic of China  中华人民共和国
  the United States  美国
 9)用在表示乐器的名词之前:  She plays the piano. 她会弹钢琴。
 10) 用在姓氏的复数名词之前,表示一家人:
    the Greens  格林一家人 (或格林夫妇)
 11) 用在惯用语中:
   in the day, in the morning (afternoon,evening), the day after tomorrow 
the day before yesterday, the next morning, 
in the sky (water,field,country) 
in the dark, in the rain, in the distance, 
in the middle (of), in the end,
on the whole, by the way, go to the theatre

2.3 零冠词的用法

 1) 国名,人名前通常不用定冠词:England,Mary;
 2)泛指的复数名词,表示一类人或事物时,可不用定冠词;
  They are teachers. 他们是教师。
 3)抽象名词表示一般概念时,通常不加冠词;
  Failure is the mother of success. 失败乃成功之母。
 4)物质名词表示一般概念时,通常不加冠词,当表示特定的意思时,需要加定冠词;
  Man cannot live without water. 人离开水就无法生存。
 5)在季节、月份、节日、 假日、日期、星期等表示时间的名词之前,不加冠词;
  We go to school from Monday to Friday.  我们从星期一到星期五都上课。
 6)在称呼或表示官衔,职位的名词前不加冠词;
  The guards took the American to General Lee.
  士兵们把这个美国人送到李将军那里。
 7)在三餐、球类运动和娱乐运动的名称前,不加冠词 如:have breakfast,play chess
 8)当两个或两个以上名词并用时,常省去冠词;
  I can't write without pen or pencil.  没有钢笔和铅笔,我就写不了字。
 9)当by 与火车等交通工具连用,表示一种方式时,中间无冠词;by bus,by train;
 10)有些个体名词不用冠词;如:
  school,college,prison,market,hospital,bed,table,class,town,church,court 等个体名词,直接置于介词后,表示该名词的深层含义;
    go to hospital  去医院看病
    go to the hospital  去医院 (并不是去看病,而是有其他目的)
 11)不用冠词的序数词;
 a. 序数词前有物主代词
 b. 序数词作副词  He came first in the race.
 c. 在固定词组中  at (the) first,first of all,  from first to last

2.5 冠词位置

 1) 不定冠词位置
 不定冠词常位于名词或名词修饰语前。注意: 
 a. 位于下列形容词之后: such,what,many,half,
   I have never seen such an animal.
   Many a man is fit for the job.


 b. 当名词前的形容词被副词as, so, too, how, however, enough修饰时,不定冠词应放在形容词之后:
   It is as pleasant a day as I have ever spent.
   So short a time.
   Too long a distance.


 c. quite,rather与单数名词连用,冠词放在其后。
但当rather,quite 前仍有形容词,不定冠词放其前后均可。如:quite a lot


 d. 在as,though 引导的让步状语从句中,当标语为形容词修饰的名词时,不定冠词放形容词后:
    Brave a man though he is,he trembles at the sight of snakes. 他尽管勇敢,可见到蛇还是发抖。
   当名词被比较级形容词修饰时,不定冠词通常置于比较级形容词之后。

2) 定冠词位置
  定冠词通常位于名词或名词修饰语前,但放在all, both,double,half,twice,three times等词之后,名词之前。
  All the students in the class went out. 班里的所有学生都出去了。
2.6 数词

  表示数目多少或顺序多少的词叫数词,数词分为基数词和序数词。表示数目多少的数词叫基数词;表示顺序的数词叫序数词。
 一、基数词
  1)基数词写法和读法: 345 three hundred and forty-five;
  2)基数词一般是单数形式,但下列情况,常用复数:
   a. 与of 短语连用,表示概数,不能与具体数目连 用,如scores of people 指许多人;
   b. 在一些表示"一排"或"一组"的词组里;
  如:They arrived in twos and threes. 他们三三两两的到达了。
   c. 表示"几十岁";
   d. 表示"年代",用 in +the +数词复数;
   e. 在乘法运算的一种表示法里,如:3 x 5 = 15 Three fives is (are) fifteen.


 二、序数词
  序数词的缩写形式: first---1st second---2nd thirty-first---31st 


 三、 数词的用法
  1)倍数表示法
   a. 主语+谓语+倍数(或分数)+ as + adj. + as
    I have three times as many as you. 我有你三倍那么多。


   b. 主语+谓语+倍数(分数)+ the size (amount,length…) of…
    The earth is 49 times the size of the moon. 地球是月球的49倍。


   c. 主语+谓语+倍数(分数)+ 形容词(副词)比较级+ than…
   The grain output is 8 percent higher this year than that of last year.
   今年比去年粮食产量增加8%。


   d. 还可以用by+倍数,表示增加多少倍
   The production of grain has been increased by four times this year.
   今年粮食产量增加了4倍。


  2)分数表示法
  构成:基数词代表分子,序数词代表分母。分子大于1时,分子的序数词用单数,分母序数词用复数:
  1/3 one-third ; 3/37 three and three-sevenths



名词

  名词可以分为专有名词(Proper Nouns)和普通名词 (Common Nouns),专有名词是某个(些)人,地方,机构等专有的名称,如Beijing,China等。普通名词是一类人或东西或是一个抽象概念的名词,如:book,sadness等。普通名词又可分为下面四类:
  1)个体名词(Individual Nouns):表示某类人或东西中的个体,如:gun。
  2)集体名词(Collective Nouns):表示若干个个体组成的集合体,如:family。
  3)物质名词(Material Nouns):表示无法分为个体的实物,如:air。
  4)抽象名词(Abstract Nouns):表示动作、状态、品质、感情等抽象概念,如:work。
个体名词和集体名词可以用数目来计算,称为可数名词(Countable Nouns),物质名词和抽象名词一般无法用数目计算,称为不可数名词(Uncountable Nouns)。归纳一下,名词的分类可以下图表示:
  _______________________________________
   专有名词             
  名      个体名词       
               可数名词 
        集体名词        
   普通名词            
  词      物质名词       
               不可数名词
        抽象名词        



1.1 名词复数的规则变化

___________________________________________________
 情况   构成方法   读音    例词
__________________________________________________
一般情况   加 -s  1.清辅音后读/s/;  map-maps
           2.浊辅音和元音后  bag-bags
            读 /z/;     car-cars
___________________________________________________  


以s,sh,ch,
x等结尾的词  加 -es  读 /iz/    bus-buses
                   watch-watches
___________________________________________________
以ce,se,ze,
(d)ge等结尾
的词      加 -s  读 /iz/  license-licenses
___________________________________________________
以辅音字母+y  变y 为i
结尾的词    再加es  读 /z/   baby---babies
___________________________________________________

1.2 其它名词复数的规则变化
    
1) 以y结尾的专有名词,或元音字母+y 结尾的名词变复数时,直接加s变复数: 
  如: two Marys     the Henrys
     monkey---monkeys holiday---holidays  
 比较: 层楼:storey ---storeys  story---stories

2) 以o 结尾的名词,变复数时:
  a. 加s,如: photo---photos  piano---pianos
         radio---radios  zoo---zoos;
  b. 加es,如:potato--potatoes tomato--tomatoes
  c. 均可,如:zero---zeros / zeroes 

3) 以f或fe 结尾的名词变复数时:
  a. 加s,如: belief---beliefs roof---roofs
         safe---safes  gulf---gulfs;
  b. 去f,fe 加ves,如:half---halves  
   knife---knives leaf---leaves wolf---wolves
   wife---wives life---lives thief---thieves;
  c. 均可,如: handkerchief:
        handkerchiefs / handkerchieves

1.3 名词复数的不规则变化

1)child---children foot---feet tooth---teeth
  mouse---mice   man---men  woman---women 
注意:与 man 和 woman构成的合成词,其复数形式也是 -men 和-women。
 如: an Englishman,two Englishmen. 但German不是合成词,故复数形式为Germans;Bowman是姓,其复数是the Bowmans。

2)单复同形 如:
  deer,sheep,fish,Chinese,Japanese
  li,jin,yuan,two li,three mu,four jin 
  但除人民币元、角、分外,美元、英镑、法郎等都有复数形式。如:
a dollar, two dollars;  a meter, two meters


  3)集体名词,以单数形式出现,但实为复数。
   如: people police cattle 等本身就是复数,不能说 a people,a police,a cattle,但可以说
a person,a policeman,a head of cattle,the English,the British,the French,the Chinese,the Japanese,the Swiss 等名词,表示国民总称时,作复数用。
   如: The Chinese are industries and brave. 中国人民是勤劳勇敢的。


  4)以s结尾,仍为单数的名词,如:
   a. maths,politics,physics等学科名词,为不可数名词,是单数。
   b. news 是不可数名词。
   c. the United States,the United Nations 应视为单数。
   The United Nations was organized in 1945. 联合国是1945年组建起来的。
   d. 以复数形式出现的书名,剧名,报纸,杂志名,也可视为单数。
   "The Arabian Nights" is a very interesting story-book.
   <<一千零一夜>>是一本非常有趣的故事书。


  5) 表示由两部分构成的东西,如:glasses (眼镜) trousers, clothes
    若表达具体数目,要借助数量词 pair(对,双); suit(套); a pair of glasses; two pairs of trousers
  
  6) 另外还有一些名词,其复数形式有时可表示特别意思,如:goods货物,waters水域,fishes(各种)鱼 
1.4 不可数名词量的表示

1)物质名词
  a. 当物质名词转化为个体名词时。
    比较: Cake is a kind of food. 蛋糕是一种食物。 (不可数)
       These cakes are sweet. 这些蛋糕很好吃。 (可数)
  b. 当物质名词表示该物质的种类时,名词可数。
   This factory produces steel. (不可数)
   We need various steels. (可数)
  c. 当物质名词表示份数时,可数。
   Our country is famous for tea.
   我国因茶叶而闻名。
   Two teas, please.
   请来两杯茶。

2) 抽象名词有时也可数。
  four freedoms 四大自由
  the four modernizations四个现代化
  物质名词和抽象名词可以借助单位词表一定的数量。
  如:
  a glass of water 一杯水 
  a piece of advice 一条建议
1.5 定语名词的复数

名词作定语一般用单数,但也有以下例外。
 1) 用复数作定语。
   如:sports meeting 运动会
     students reading-room 学生阅览室 
     talks table 谈判桌 
     the foreign languages department 外语系


 2) man, woman, gentleman等作定语时,其单复数以所修饰的名词的单复数而定。
   如:men workers  women teachers  
     gentlemen officials


 3) 有些原有s结尾的名词,作定语时,s保留。
   如:goods train (货车)
     arms produce 武器生产
     customs papers 海关文件
     clothes brush衣刷


 4) 数词+名词作定语时,这个名词一般保留单数形式。
   如:two-dozen eggs 两打/(二十四个鸡蛋) 
     a ten-mile walk 十里路 
     two-hundred trees 两百棵树
     a five-year plan. 一个五年计划
   个别的有用复数作定语的,如: a seven-years child

1.6 不同国家的人的单复数

名称   总称(谓语用复数) 一个人   两个人     
中国人  the Chinese   a Chinese  two Chinese
瑞士人  the Swiss    a Swiss   two Swiss
澳大利亚人the       an     two
     Australians   Australian Australians                 
俄国人  the Russians  a Russian  two Russians
意大利人 the Italians  an Italian  two Italians
希腊人  the Greek    a Greek   two Greeks
法国人  the French   a Frenchman two
                    Frenchmen
日本人  the Japanese  a Japanese  two Japanese
美国人  the Americans an American two Americans
印度人  the Indians  an Indian   two Indians
加拿大人 the Canadians a Canadian  two Canadians
德国人  the Germans  a German  two Germans
英国人  the English  an Englishman two
                    Englishmen
瑞典人  the Swedish  a Swede   two Swedes 
1.7 名词的格

  在英语中有些名词可以加"'s"来表示所有关系,带这种词尾的名词形式称为该名词的所有格,如:a teacher's book。名词所有格的规则如下:
 1) 单数名词词尾加"'s",复数名词词尾没有s,也要加"'s",如the boy's bag 男孩的书包,men's room 男厕所。
 2) 若名词已有复数词尾-s ,只加"'",如:the workers' struggle 工人的斗争。
 3) 凡不能加"'s"的名词,都可以用"名词+of +名词"的结构来表示所有关系,如:the title of the song 歌的名字。
 4) 在表示店铺或教堂的名字或某人的家时,名词所有格的后面常常不出现它所修饰的名词,如:the barber's 理发店。
 5) 如果两个名词并列,并且分别有's,则表示"分别有";只有一个's,则表示'共有'。
   如:John's and Mary's room(两间)  John and Mary's room(一间)
 6) 复合名词或短语,'s 加在最后一个词的词尾。
   如:a month or two's absence






代词

  代词是代替名词的一种词类。大多数代词具有名词和形容词的功能。英语中的代词,按其意义、特征及在句中的作用分为:人称代词、物主代词、指示代词、自身代词、相互代词、疑问代词、关系代词和不定代词八种。


 一、人称代词是表示"我"、"你"、"他"、"她"、"它"、
"我们"、"你们"、"他们"的词。人称代词有人称、数和格的变化,见下表:

  数      单数     复数      
  格    主格  宾格  主格  宾格    
  第一人称  I    me   we   us   
  第二人称 you   you  you   you   
        he    him  they   them  
  第三人称 she   her  they   them   
        it    it   they   them  

  如:He is my friend. 他是我的朋友。
    It's me. 是我。


 二、 物主代词表示所有关系的代词,也可叫做代词所有格。物主代词分形容性物主代词和名词性物主代词二种,其人物和数的变化见下表。


 数     单数       复数         
人称   第一 第二 第三  第一 第二 第三
     人称 人称  人称  人称 人称 人称    
形容词性 my your his/her  its our your/their
物主代词                       

名词性  mine yours his/hers its ours yours/theirs
物主代词                       

  如: I like his car.
    我喜欢他的小汽车。
     Our school is here,and theirs is there. 
    我们的学校在这儿,他们的在那儿。


 三、 指示代词表示"那个"、"这个"、"这些"、"那些"等指示概念的代词。指示代词有this,that,these,those等。
  如: That is a good idea.   那是个好主意。


 四、 表示"我自己"、"你自己"、"他自己"、"我们自己"、"你们自己"和"他们自己"等的代词,叫做自身代词,也称为"反身代词"。
  如: She was talking to herself.  她自言自语。


 五、 表示相互关系的代词叫相互代词,有each other 和one another两组,但在运用中,这两组词没什么区别。
  如: They love each other.  他们彼此相爱。
 
 六、 不是指明代替任何特定名词的代词叫做不定代词。常见的不定代词有a11,both,each,every等,以及含有some-,any-,no-等的合成代词,如anybody, something,no one。这些不定代词大都可以代替名词和形容词,在句中作主语、宾语、表语和定语, 但none和由some,any,no等构成的复合不定代词只能作主语、宾语或表语;every和no只能作定语。如:

--- Do you have a car?  --你有一辆小汽车吗?
--- Yes,I have one.  --是的,我有一辆。
--- I don't know any of them.  他们,我一个也不认识。


 七、 疑问代词有who,whom,whose,what和which等。在句子中用来构成特殊疑问句。疑问代词都可用作连接代词,引导名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句和表语从句)
  如:Tell me who he is.  告诉我他是谁。


 八、 关系代词有who,whom,whose,that,which,as等,可用作引导从句的关联词。它们在定语从句中可作主语、表语、宾语、定语等;另一方面它们又代表主句中为定语从句所修饰的那个名词或代词(通称为先行词)。
  如: He is the man whom you have been looking for.  他就是你要找的那个人。

3.1 人称代词的用法

1)人称代词的主格在句子中作主语或主语补语,例如:
  John waited a while but eventually he went home.
  约翰等了一会儿,最后他回家了。
  John hoped the passenger would be Mary and indeed it was she.
  约翰希望那位乘客是玛丽,还真是她。

说明:在复合句中,如果主句和从句主语相同,代词主语要用在从句中,名词主语用在主句中,例如:
  When he arrived, John went straight to the bank.
  约翰一到就直接去银行了。

2)人称代词的宾格在句子中作宾语或介词宾语,但在口语中也能作主语补语,第一人称在省略句中,还可以作主语,例如:
 I saw her with them, at least, I thought it was her.
 我看到她和他们在一起,至少我认为是她。(her做宾 语,them做介词宾语,her做主语补语)
   a. -- Who broke the vase? --谁打碎了花瓶?
   b. -- Me.    --我。(me做主语补语= It's me.)

说明:在上面两例句中,her和me分别作主语补语。现代英语中多用宾格,在正式文体中这里应为she和I。
3.2 人称代词之主、宾格的替换

1) 宾格代替主格
  a.在简短对话中,当人称代词单独使用或在not 后,多用宾语。
   ---- I like English.   --我喜欢英语。
   ---- Me too.       --我也喜欢。
   ---- Have more wine?   --再来点酒喝吗?
   ---- Not me.       --我可不要了。


  b.在表示比较的非正式的文体中,常用宾格代替主格。 但如果比较状语的谓语保留,则主语只能用主格。
    He is taller than I/me.
    He is taller than I am.

2) 主格代替宾格
  a. 在介词but,except 后,有时可用主格代替宾格。


  b. 在电话用语中常用主格。   
    ---- I wish to speak to Mary. --我想和玛丽通话。
    ---- This is she.       --我就是玛丽。


 注意:在动词be 或to be 后的人称代词视其前面的名词或代词而定。
    I thought it was she.   我以为是她。      (主格----主格)
    I thought it to be her.             (宾格----宾格)
    I was taken to be she.  我被当成了她。    (主格----主格)
    They took me to be her. 他们把我当成了她。   (宾格----宾格)



3.3 代词的指代问题

 1)不定代词 anybody,everybody,nobody,anyone, someone, everyone,no one, 及whoever和person在正式场合使用时,可用he, his, him代替。
   Nobody came, did he? 谁也没来,是吗?


 2)动物名词的指代一般用it或they代替,有时也用he, she,带有亲切的感情色彩。
   Give the cat some food. She is hungry. 给这猫一些吃的。她饿了。


 3)指代车或国家,船舶的名词,含感情色彩时常用she。

3.4 并列人称代词的排列顺序

 1) 单数人称代词并列作主语时,其顺序为:
    第二人称 -> 第三人称 -> 第一人称
      you -> he/she; it -> I
    You, he and I should return on time.
 2) 复数人称代词作主语时,其顺序为:
    第一人称 -> 第二人称 -> 第三人称
      we -> you   -> They
注意: 在下列情况中,第一人称放在前面。
   a. 在承认错误,承担责任时,
     It was I and John that made her angry.
     是我和约翰惹她生气了。


   b. 在长辈对晚辈,长官对下属说话时,如长官为第一人称, 如:I and you try to finish it.


   c. 并列主语只有第一人称和第三人称时,

   d. 当其他人称代词或名词被定语从句修饰时。
3.5 物主代词
 
 1)物主代词既有表示所属的作用又有指代作用,例如:
   John had cut his finger; apparently there was a broken glass on his desk.
  约翰割破了手指,显而易见,他桌子上有个破玻璃杯。


  物主代词有形容词性(my, your等)和名词性(mine, yours等)两种,形容词性的物主代词属于限定词。
  名词性的物主代词在用法上相当于省略了中心名词的 --'s属格结构,例如:
   Jack's cap  意为   The cap is Jack's.
   His cap   意为   The cap is his.


 2) 名词性物主代词的句法功能
  a. 作主语,例如:
   May I use your pen? Yours works better.
   我可以用一用你的钢笔吗? 你的比我的好用。
  
  b. 作宾语,例如:
   I love my motherland as much as you love yours.
   我爱我的祖国就像你爱你的祖国一样深。
  
  c. 作介词宾语,例如:
   Your should interpret what I said in my sense of the word, not in yours.
   你应当按我所用的词义去解释我说的话,而不能按你自己的意义去解释。


  d. 作主语补语,例如:
    The life I have is yours. It's yours. It's yours. 我的生命属于你,属于你,属于你。
3.6 双重所有格

   物主代词不可与 a, an, this, that, these, those, some, any, several, no, each, every, such, another, which等词一起前置,修饰一个名词,而必须用双重所有格。
 公式为:
  a, an, this, that +名词+of +名词性物主代词。如:
    a friend of mine.
    each brother of his.


3.7 反身代词

 1) 列表
I     you     you     she    he
myself   yourself  yourselves herself himself

we     they     it    one
ourselves themselves  itself  oneself


 2)做宾语
  a. 有些动词需有反身代词
   absent, bathe, amuse, blame, dry, cut, enjoy, hurt, introduce, behave
   We enjoyed ourselves very much last night. 我们昨晚玩得很开心。
   Please help yourself to some fish.  请你随便吃点鱼。


  b. 用于及物动词+宾语+介词
   take pride in, be annoyed with, help oneself to sth.
   I could not dress (myself) up at that time. 那个时候我不能打扮我自己。
  
  注:有些动词后不跟反身代词, get up, sit-down, stand up, wake up等。
  Please sit down. 请坐。


 3) 作表语; 同位语
   be oneself: I am not myself today.  我今天不舒服。
   The thing itself is not important.  事情本身并不重要。
 


 4) 在不强调的情况下,but, except, for 等介词后宾语用反身代词或人称代词宾格均可。如:
No one but myself (me) is hurt.
注意:
  a. 反身代词本身不能单独作主语。
   (错) Myself drove the car.
   (对) I myself drove the car. 我自己开车。
  b. 但在and, or, nor连接的并列主语中,第二个主语可用反身代词,特别是myself 作主语。
   Charles and myself saw it.

 5)第二人称作宾语,要用反身代词。
   You should be proud of yourself. 你应为自己感到骄傲。


3.8 相互代词

 1)相互代词只有each other和one another两个词组。他们表示句中动词所叙述的动作或感觉在涉及的各个对象之间是相互存在的,例如:
  It is easy to see that the people of different cultures have always copied each other.
  显而易见,不同文化的人总是相互借鉴的。

 2) 相互代词的句法功能:
  a. 作动词宾语;
   People should love one another. 人们应当彼此相爱。


  b. 可作介词宾语;
   Does bark, cocks crow, frogs croak to each other.  吠、鸡鸣、蛙儿对唱。


 说明:传统语法认为,相互关系存在于两个人或物之间用each other, 存在于两个以上人和物之间用one another。现代英语中,两组词交替使用的实例也很多,例如:


   He put all the books beside each other.
    他把所有书并列摆放起来。
   He put all the books beside one another.
    他把所有书并列摆放起来。
   Usually these small groups were independent of each other.
    这些小团体通常是相互独立的。

  c. 相互代词可加-'s构成所有格,例如:
    The students borrowed each other's notes.
    学生们互借笔记。
3.9 指示代词

 1) 指示代词分单数(this / that)和复数(these / those)两种形式,既可作限定词又可做代词,例如:
      单数          复数
限定词:This girl is Mary.  Those men are my
               teachers.
代词: This is Mary.     Those are my
               teachers.


 2) 指示代词的句法功能;
  a. 作主语
    This is the way to do it.
    这事儿就该这样做。
  
   b. 作宾语
    I like this better than that.
    我喜欢这个甚至那个。


   c. 作主语补语
    My point is this.
    我的观点就是如此。


   d. 作介词宾语
    I don't say no to that.
    我并未拒绝那个。
    There is no fear of that.
    那并不可怕。
 说明1:
  指示代词在作主语时可指物也可指人,但作其他句子成分时只能指物,不能指人,例如:
 (对)That is my teacher. 那是我的老师。( that作主语,指人)
 (对)He is going to marry this girl. 他要和这个姑娘结婚。(this作限定词)
 (错)He is going to marry this. (this作宾语时不能指人)
 (对)I bought this. 我买这个。(this指物,可作宾语)


 说明2:
  That和those可作定语从句的先行词,但this和 these不能,同时,在作先行词时,只有those可指人,试比较:
 (对) He admired that which looked beautiful. 他赞赏外表漂亮的东西。
 (对) He admired those who looked beautiful. 他赞赏那些外表漂亮的人。(those指人)
 (错) He admired that who danced well. (that作宾语时不能指人)
 (对) He admired those who danced well. 他赞赏跳舞好的人。(those指人)
 (对) He admired those which looked beautiful. 他赞赏那些外表漂亮的东西。(those指物)
3.10 疑问代词

 1) 疑问代词在句中起名词词组的作用,用来构成疑问句。疑问代词有下列几个:
  指 人: who, whom, whose
  指 物: what
  既可指人又可指物: which


 2) 疑问代词在句中应位于谓语动词之前,没有性和数的变化,除who之外也没有格的变化。what, which, whose还可作限定词。试比较:


 疑问代词:Whose are these books on the desk? 
       桌上的书是谁的?
      What was the directional flow of U. S. territorial expansion?
       美国的领土扩张是朝哪个方向的?
 限定词: Whose books are these on the desk?
       桌上的书是谁的?
      What events led to most of the east of the Mississippi River becoming part of the United States?  哪些事件使密西西比河以东的大部分土地归属于美国?

 说明1:
   无论是做疑问代词还是限定词,which 和 what 所指的范围不同。what所指的范围是无限的,而which则指在一定的范围内,例如:
  Which girls do you like best?
   你喜欢哪几个姑娘?
  What girls do you like best?
   你喜欢什么样的姑娘?


 说明2:
   Whom是who的宾格,在书面语中,它作动词宾语或介词宾语,在口语中作宾语时,可用who代替,但在介词后只能用whom, 例如:
  Who(m) did you meet on the street?
    你在街上遇到了谁?(作动词宾语)
  Who(m) are you taking the book to?
    你要把这书带给谁?(作介词宾语,置句首)
  To whom did you speak on the campus?
    你在校园里和谁讲话了?(作介词宾语,置介词 后,不能用who取代。)


 说明3:
   疑问代词用于对介词宾语提问时,过去的文体中介词和疑问代词通常一起放在句首,现代英语中,疑问代词在句首,介词在句未,例如:
 For what do most people live and work?
    大部分人生活和工作的目的是什么?(旧文体)
 What are you looking for?
    你在找什么?(现代英语)


 说明4:
   疑问代词还可引导名词性从句,例如:
 I can't make out what he is driving at.
  我不知道他用意何在。
 Can you tell me whose is the blue shirt on the bed? 
  你能告诉我床上的蓝衬衣是谁的吗?
 Much of what you say I agree with, but I cannot go all the way with you.
  你说的我大部分同意,但并不完全赞同。



形容词和副词

4.1 形容词及其用法


  形容词修饰名词,说明事物或人的性质或特征。通常, 可将形容词分成性质形容词和叙述形容词两类,其位置不一定都放在名词前面。

1) 直接说明事物的性质或特征的形容词是性质形容词,它有级的变化,可以用程度副词修饰,在句中可作定语、表语和补语。例如:hot 热的。

2) 叙述形容词只能作表语,所以又称为表语形容词。这类形容词没有级的变化,也不可用程度副词修饰。大多数以a开头的形容词都属于这一类。例如:afraid 害怕的。
   (错) He is an ill man.
   (对) The man is ill.
   (错) She is an afraid girl.
   (对) The girl is afraid.
   这类词还有: well,unwell,ill,faint,afraid,alike,alive,alone,asleep,awake 等。

3)形容词作定语修饰名词时,要放在名词的前边。但是如果形容词修饰以-thing为字尾的词语时,要放在这些词之后,例如:
   something nice



4.2 以-ly结尾的形容词

1) 大部分形容词加-ly可构成副词。但 friendly,deadly,lovely,lonely,likely,lively,  ugly,brotherly,仍为形容词。
 改错:(错) She sang lovely.
    (错) He spoke to me very friendly.
    (对) Her singing was lovely.
    (对) He spoke to me in a very friendly way.

2)有些以-ly 结尾既为形容词,也为副词。
   daily,weekly,monthly,yearly,early
   The Times is a daily paper.
   The Times is published daily.

4.3 用形容词表示类别和整体

1) 某些形容词加上定冠词可以泛指一类人,与谓语动词的复数连接。如:the dead,the living,the rich,the poor,the blind,the hungry
   The poor are losing hope.

2) 有关国家和民族的形容词加上定冠词指这个民族的整体,与动词的复数连用。
   the British,the English,the French,the Chinese.
   The English have wonderful sense of humor.
4.4 多个形容词修饰名词的顺序

  多个形容词修饰名词时,其顺序为:
  限定词--数词--描绘词--(大小,长短,形状,新旧,颜色) --出处--材料性质,类别--名词
   a small round table
   a tall gray building
   a dirty old brown shirt
   a famous German medical school
   an expensive Japanese sports car

典型例题:
1) Tony is going camping with ___ boys. 
  A. little two other B. two little other  C. two other little  D. little other two
  答案:C。由"限定词--数词--描绘词--(大小,长短,形状,新旧,颜色) --性质--名词"的公式可知数词,描绘词,性质依次顺序,只有C符合答案。

2) One day they crossed the ____bridge behind the palace.
 A. old Chinese stone   B. Chinese old stone  C. old stone Chinese  D. Chinese stone old
 答案A. 几个形容词修饰一个名词,他们的排列顺序是:年龄,形状,大小+颜色+来源+质地+用途+国家+名词。

3) ---- How was your recent visit to Qingdao?
 ---- It was great. We visited some friends,and spent the ___days at the seaside.
 A. few last sunny  B. last few sunny  C. last sunny few  D. few sunny last
答案:B。本题考查多个形容词的排序问题。一般与被修饰形容词关系密切的形容词靠近名词;如果几个形容词的重要性差不多,音节少的形容词在前,音节多的方在后,在不能确定时,可参照下表:

限定词+数量词(序数词在前,基数词在后)+性状形容词+大小、长短、高低等形体+
those + three + beautiful + large + square 

新旧+颜色+国籍+材料+名词
old + brown + wood + table
4.5 副词及其基本用法

  副词主要用来修饰动词,形容词,副词或其他结构。
一、副词的位置:
1) 在动词之前。
2) 在be动词、助动词之后。 
3) 多个助动词时,副词一般放在第一个助动词后。

注意:
  a. 大多数方式副词位于句尾,但宾语过长,副词可以提前,以使句子平衡。
   We could see very clearly a strange light ahead of us.
  b. 方式副词well,badly糟、坏,hard等只放在句尾。
   He speaks English well.

二、副词的排列顺序:
1) 时间,地点副词,小单位的在前,大单位在后。
2) 方式副词,短的在前,长的在后,并用and或but等连词连接。
    Please write slowly and carefully.
3) 多个不同副词排列:程度+地点+方式+时间副词。

注意:副词very 可以修饰形容词,但不能修饰动词。
  改错:(错) I very like English.
     (对) I like English very much.

注意:副词enough要放在形容词的后面,形容词enough放在名词前后都可。
     I don't know him well enough.
     There is enough food for everyone to eat.
     There is food enough for everyone to eat
4.6 兼有两种形式的副词

1) close与closely
  close意思是"近"; closely 意思是"仔细地"
    He is sitting close to me.
    Watch him closely.
2) late 与lately
   late意思是"晚"; lately 意思是"最近"
    You have come too late.
    What have you been doing lately?
3) deep与deeply
   deep意思是"深",表示空间深度;deeply时常表示感情上的深度,"深深地"
    He pushed the stick deep into the mud.
    Even father was deeply moved by the film.
4) high与highly
   high表示空间高度;highly表示程度,相当于much
    The plane was flying high.
    I think highly of your opinion.
5) wide与widely
   wide表示空间宽度;widely意思是"广泛地","在许多地方"
    He opened the door wide.
    English is widely used in the world.
6) free与freely
  free的意思是"免费";freely 的意思是"无限制地"
    You can eat free in my restaurant whenever you like.
    You may speak freely; say what you like.

4.7 形容词与副词的比较级

  大多数形容词(性质形容词)和副词有比较级和最高级的变化,即原级、比较级和最高级,用来表示事物的等级差别。原级即形容词的原形,比较级和最高级有规则变化和不规则变化两种。

1) 规则变化
  单音节词和少数双音节词,加词尾-er,-est来构成比较级和最高级。

 构成法    原级    比较级  最高级     
一般单音节词  tall(高的)   taller  tallest
未尾加-er,-est great(巨大的) greater  greatest   
以不发音的e结尾 nice(好的)   nicer  nicest
的单音词和少数  large(大的)  larger  largest
以- le结尾的双 able(有能力的) abler  ablest
音节词只加-r,-st                   
以一个辅音字母 big(大的)    bigger  biggest
结尾的闭音节单 hot热的)    hotter  hottest
音节词,双写结
尾的辅音字母,
再加-er,-est                     

"以辅音字母+y" easy(容易的)  easier  easiest
结尾的双音节词,busy(忙的)   busier  busiest
改y为i,再加
-er,-est                       
少数以-er,-ow clever(聪明的) cleverer cleverest
结尾的双音节词 narrow(窄的)  narrower narrowest
未尾加-er,-est                    

其他双音节词和 important(重要的) 
多音节词,在前      more important
面加more,most            most important
来构成比较级和 easily(容易地)
最高级。         more easily  
                   most easily   


2) 不规则变化

   原级     比较级   最高级          
good(好的)/    better    best
well(健康的)                      
bad (坏的)/     worse     worst
ill(有病的)                      
old (老的)     older/elder oldest/eldest     
much/many(多的)   more      most        
little(少的)    less     least        
far (远的)   farther/further  farthest/furthest
4.8 as + 形容词或副词原级 + as

1)在否定句或疑问句中可用so… as。
   He cannot run so/as fast as you.

2)当as… as 中间有名词时采用以下格式。
    as +形容词+ a +单数名词
    as + many/much +名词
   This is as good an example as the other is.
   I can carry as much paper as you can..

3)用表示倍数的词或其他程度副词做修饰语时,放在as的前面。
  This room is twice as big as that one.
  Your room is the same size as mine.  

4) 倍数+ as + adj. + as <=> 倍数+ then + of
  This bridge is three times as long as that one.
  This bridge is three times the length of that one.
  Your room is twice as large as mine.
  Your room is twice the size of mine.
4.9 比较级形容词或副词 + than

    You are taller than I.
    They lights in your room are as bright as those in mine.

注意:
1)要避免重复使用比较级。
   (错) He is more cleverer than his brother.
   (对) He is more clever than his brother.
   (对) He is clever than his brother.

2)要避免将主语含在比较对象中。
   (错) China is larger that any country in Asia.
   (对) China is larger than any other countries in Asia.

3)要注意对应句型,遵循前后一致的原则。
    The population of Shanghai is larger than that of Beijing.
    It is easier to make a plan than to carry it out.

4)要注意冠词的使用,后有名词的时候,前面才有可能有名词。
  比较:Which is large, Canada or Australia?
     Which is the larger country, Canada or Australia?
     She is taller than her two sisters.
     She is the taller of the two sisters.
4.10 可修饰比较级的词

1)a bit, a little, rather, much, far, by far, many, a lot, lots, a great deal, any, still, even等

2)还可以用表示倍数的词或度量名词作修饰语。

3)以上词(除by far)外,必须置于比较级形容词或副词的前面。

典型例题:   
1) ---- Are you feeling ____? 
   ---- Yes,I'm fine now.
 A. any well B. any better C. quite good
 D. quite better  
 答案:B. any 可修饰比较级,quite修饰原级,well的比较级为better.

2)The experiment was____ easier than we had expected. 
  A. more  B. much more   C. much  
  D. more much
答案:C. much可修饰比较级,因此B,C都说得通,但easier本身已是比较级,不需more,因此C为正确答案。

3)If there were no examinations, we should have ___ at school. 
A. the happiest time  B. a more happier time 
C. much happiest time  D. a much happier time
答案:D。
4.11 many,old 和 far

1) 如果后接名词时, much more +不可数名词
          many more +可数名词复数   

2) old 有两种比较级和最高级形式: older/oldest 和elder/eldest。 elder,eldest 只用于兄弟姐妹的长幼关系。
   My elder brother is an engineer.
   Mary is the eldest of the three sisters.

3) far 有两种比较级,farther,further. 在英语中两者都可指距离。
  在美语中,father 表示距离,further表示进一步。
   I have nothing further to say.

4.12 the + 最高级 + 比较范围

1) The Sahara is the biggest desert in the world.
  形容词最高级前通常必须用定冠词 the,副词最高级前可不用。
  形容词most前面没有the,不表示最高级的含义,只表示"非常"。
   It is a most important problem.
   =It is a very important problem.
注意: 使用最高级要注意将主语包括在比较范围内。
    (错) Tom is the tallest of his three brothers.
    (对) Tom is the tallest of the three brothers.

2) 下列词可修饰最高级,by far, far, much, mostly, almost
   This hat is nearly / almost the biggest.
注意:
 a.  very可修饰最高级,但位置与much不同。
      This is the very best.
      This is much the best.
 b.  序数词通常只修饰最高级。
      Africa is the second largest continent.

3) 句型转换:
   Mike is the most intelligent in his class.
   Mike is more intelligent than any other students in his class.

4) "否定词语+比较级","否定词语+ so… as"结构表示最高级含义。
        Nothing is so easy as this.
       =Nothing is easier than this.
       =This is the easiest thing.

4.13 和more有关的词组

1) the more… the more… 越……就越……
  The harder you work,the greater progress you'll make.
2) more B than A 与其说A不如说B
  less A than B
  He is more lazy than slow at his work.
= He is less slow than lazy at his work.
3) no more… than… 与……一样……,不比……多
  The officials could see no more than the Emperor.
  no less… than… 与……一样……
  He is no less diligent than you.
4) more than 不只是,非常
  She is more than kind to us all.

典型例题
1)The weather in China is different from____.
 A. in America  B. one in America  C. America
 D. that in America
答案:D. 本题意为"中国的天气比美国热。"比较的是天气而不是国家,C不能选。A没有名词,后句成分不全,排除。B和D中,B中的one常用来代替可数名词,而that可车以代替不可数或抽象名词,所以选D。

2)After the new technique was introduced,the factory produced ___ tractors in 1988 as the year before.
A. as twice many  B. as many twice  C. twice as many D. twice many as
 答案C. 此句意为"这个厂1988能生产的拖拉机是往年的两倍"。 表示倍数用"倍数+ as + 形容词原形+ as +比较对象"的句型。所以此句答案为C。
 This ruler is three times as long as that one.

1 条评论:

moliwenyuan 说...

动词

5.1 系动词

  系动词亦称联系动词(Link Verb),作为系动词,它本身有词义,但不能单独用作谓语,后边必须跟表语(亦称补语),构成系表结构说明主语的状况、性质、特征等情况。

说明:
有些系动词又是实义动词,该动词表达实义时,有词义,可单独作谓语,例如:
   He fell ill yesterday. 
  他昨天病了。(fell是系动词,后跟补足语,说明主语情况。)
   He fell off the ladder. 
  他从梯子上摔下来。fell是实义动词,单独作谓语。

1)状态系动词
用来表示主语状态,只有be一词,例如:
He is a teacher. 他是一名教师。(is与补足语一起说明主语的身份。)

2)持续系动词
用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度,主要有keep, rest, remain, stay, lie, stand, 例如:
He always kept silent at meeting.  他开会时总保持沉默。
This matter rests a mystery.  此事仍是一个谜。

3)表像系动词
用来表示"看起来像"这一概念,主要有seem, appear, look, 例如:
He looks tired.  他看起来很累。
He seems (to be) very sad.  他看起来很伤心。

4)感官系动词
感官系动词主要有feel, smell, sound, taste, 例如:
 This kind of cloth feels very soft. 
  这种布手感很软。
 This flower smells very sweet. 
 这朵花闻起来很香。

5)变化系动词
  这些系动词表示主语变成什么样,变化系动词主要有become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come, run.
例如:
  He became mad after that.  自那之后,他疯了。
  She grew rich within a short time.  她没多长时间就富了。

6)终止系动词
表示主语已终止动作,主要有prove, trun out, 表达"证实","变成"之意,例如:
  The rumor proved false. 这谣言证实有假。
  The search proved difficult. 搜查证实很难。
  His plan turned out a success.  他的计划终于成功了。(turn out表终止性结果)
5.2 什么是助动词

1)协助主要动词构成谓语动词词组的词叫助动词(Auxiliary Verb)。被协助的动词称作主要动词(Main Verb)。
助动词自身没有词义,不可单独使用,例如:
   He doesn't like English. 他不喜欢英语。
(doesn't是助动词,无词义;like是主要动词,有词义)

2) 助动词协助主要动词完成以下功用,可以用来:
  a. 表示时态,例如:
   He is singing. 他在唱歌。
   He has got married. 他已结婚。
  b. 表示语态,例如:
   He was sent to England. 他被派往英国。
  c. 构成疑问句,例如:
   Do you like college life? 你喜欢大学生活吗?
   Did you study English before you came here?  你来这儿之前学过英语吗?
  d. 与否定副词not合用,构成否定句,例如:
   I don't like him.  我不喜欢他。
  e. 加强语气,例如:
   Do come to the party tomorrow evening. 明天晚上一定来参加晚会。
   He did know that.  他的确知道那件事。
3) 最常用的助动词有:be, have, do, shall, will, should, would


5.3 助动词be的用法

1) be +现在分词,构成进行时态,例如:
They are having a meeting. 他们正在开会。
English is becoming more and more important. 英语现在越来越重要。

2) be + 过去分词,构成被动语态,例如:
The window was broken by Tom.. 窗户是汤姆打碎的。
English is taught throughout the world. 世界各地都教英语。

3) be + 动词不定式,可表示下列内容:
 a. 表示最近、未来的计划或安排,例如:
   He is to go to New York next week.. 他下周要去纽约。
   We are to teach the freshpersons. 我们要教新生。
  说明: 这种用法也可以说成是一种将来时态表达法。
 b. 表示命令,例如:
  You are to explain this. 对此你要做出解释。
  He is to come to the office this afternoon. 要他今天下午来办公室。
 c. 征求意见,例如:
  How am I to answer him? 我该怎样答复他?
  Who is to go there? 谁该去那儿呢?
 d. 表示相约、商定,例如:
  We are to meet at the school gate at seven tomorrow morning. 我们明天早晨7点在校门口集合
5.4 助动词have的用法

1)have +过去分词,构成完成时态,例如:
  He has left for London. 他已去了伦敦。
  By the end of last month, they had finished half of their work. 
  上月未为止,他们已经完成工作的一半。

2)have + been +现在分词,构成完成进行时,例如:
  I have been studying English for ten years.
  我一直在学英语,已达十年之久。

3)have+been +过去分词,构成完成式被动语态,例如:
  English has been taught in China for many years.
  中国教英语已经多年


5.5 助动词do 的用法

1) 构成一般疑问句,例如:
  Do you want to pass the CET? 你想通过大学英语测试吗?
  Did you study German? 你们学过德语吗?

2) do + not 构成否定句,例如:
  I do not want to be criticized.  我不想挨批评。
  He doesn't like to study.  他不想学习。
  In the past, many students did not know the importance of English. 过去,好多学生不知道英语的重要性。

3) 构成否定祈使句,例如:
 Don't go there. 不要去那里。
 Don't be so absent-minded. 不要这么心不在焉。
说明: 构成否定祈使句只用do,不用did和does。

4) 放在动词原形前,加强该动词的语气,例如:
 Do come to my birthday party. 一定来参加我的生日宴会。
 I did go there. 我确实去那儿了。
 I do miss you. 我确实想你。

5) 用于倒装句,例如:
 Never did I hear of such a thing.  我从未听说过这样的事情。
 Only when we begin our college life do we realize the importance of English.
只有在开始大学生活时我们才认识到英语的重要性。
说明: 引导此类倒装句的副词有never, seldom, rarely, little, only, so, well等。

6) 用作代动词,例如:
 ---- Do you like Beijing? --你喜欢北京吗?
 ---- Yes, I do. --是的,喜欢。(do用作代动词,代替like Beijing.)
 He knows how to drive a car, doesn't he?
 他知道如何开车,对吧?
5.6 助动词shall和will的用法

  shall和will作为助动词可以与动词原形一起构成一般将来时,例如:
   I shall study harder at English.  我将更加努力地学习英语。
   He will go to Shanghai.  他要去上海。

说明:
 在过去的语法中,语法学家说shall用于第一人称,will 只用于第二、第三人称。现在,尤其是在口语中,will常用于第一人称,但shall只用于第一人称,如用于第二、第三人称,就失去助动词的意义,已变为情态动词,试比较:


 He shall come. 他必须来。(shall有命令的意味。)
 He will come. 他要来。(will只与动词原形构成一般将来时。)


5.7 助动词should,would的用法

1)should无词义,只是shall的过去形式,与动词原形构成过去将来时,只用于第一人称,例如:
  I telephoned him yesterday to ask what I should do next week.
  我昨天给他打电话,问他我下周干什么。

比较:
  "What shall I do next week?" I asked.
  "我下周干什么?"我问道。(可以说,shall变成间接引语时,变成了should。)

2) would也无词义,是will的过去形式,与动词原形构成过去将来时,用于第二、第三人称,例如:
   He said he would come.  他说他要来。
比较:
   "I will go," he said. 他说:"我要去那儿。"
   变成间接引语,就成了:
   He said he would come. 
   原来的will变成would,go变成了come.。
5.8 短语动词

  动词加小品构成的起动词作用的短语叫短语动词(Phrasal Verb)。例如:
  Turn off the radio. 把收音机关上。(turn off是短语动词)


  短语动词的构成基本有下列几种:
1) 动词+副词,如:black out;
2) 动词+介词,如:look into;
3) 动词+副词+介词,如:look forward to。构成短语动词的副词和介词都统称为小品词(Particle)。
5.9 非谓语动词

  在句子中充当除谓语以外的句子成分的动词形式叫做非谓语动词。非谓语动词分为三种形式:不定式,动名词,和分词(分词包括现在分词和过去分词)。

1)不定式
时态\语态    主动      被动         
 一般式    to do      to be done
  完成式    to have done  to have been done

2)动名词
时态\语态    主动      被动         
 一般式    doing     being done
 完成式    having done  having been done

3)分词
时态\语态    主动      被动         
 一般式    doing     being done
 完成式    having done  having been done    

  否定形式: not +不定式, not + 动名词, not + 现在













动名词

6.1 动名词作主语、宾语和表语

1)作主语
   Fighting broke out between the South and the North.
   南方与北方开战了。

2)作宾语 


 a. 动词后加动名词doing作宾语 V. + doing sth
admit 承认   appreciate 感激,赞赏 avoid 避免    
complete 完成  consider 认为     delay 耽误   deny 否认    detest 讨厌      endure 忍受    enjoy 喜欢   escape 逃脱      prevent阻止
fancy 想象   finish 完成      imagine 想象   mind 介意    miss 想念       postpone 推迟        practise 训练  recall 回忆      resent 讨厌     resist 抵抗   resume 继续      risk 冒险
suggest 建议  face 面对       include 包括    stand 忍受   understand 理解    forgive 宽恕         keep 继续

举例:
 (1) Would you mind turning down your radio a little, please?
 (2) The squirrel was lucky that it just missed being caught.   


 b. 词组后接doing
admit to   prefer…to     be used to    lead to   devote oneself to  object to   stick to   busy    look forward to(to为介词)

no good, no use, It's worth…,  as well as,
can't help, It's no use /good  be tired of
be fond of  be capable of  be afraid of 
be proud of  think of / about  hold off    
put off  keep on  insist on  count on / upon
set about  be successful in  good at  take up
give up  burst out  prevent … from… 

3)作表语
  Her job is washing,cleaning and taking care of the children.
6.2 worth 的用法

worth,worthy,worth-while都为adj. 意为"值得"。
1. worth: be worth + n.  当名词为金钱时,表示"…… 值得……"
 be worth doing sth. "……某事值得被做"
   The question is not worth discussing again and again.

2. worthy:be worthy of +n. 当名词为抽象名词时表示"……值得……"
 be worthy to be done "某事值得被做"
   The question is not worthy to be discussed againand again.

3. worth-while: be worth-while to do sth  "值得做某事"
  worth while: It is worth while doing sth
         It is worth while sb to do sth.

典型例题
It is not ____ to discuss the question again and again.
A.worth B.worthy C.worth-while D.worth while
答案C. 由worth的用法可知,此句只适合词组be worth-while to do sth.。因此选C。
7. 动词不定式

7.1 不定式作宾语

1) 动词+ 不定式
afford  aim   appear  agree  arrange  ask   be    decide bother  care  choose   come    dare   demand desire  determine     expect   elect  endeavor     hope       fail  happen  help  hesitate learn  long   mean   manage  offer  ought   plan  prepare pretend   promise refuse seem   tend   wait    wish     undertake
举例: 
 The driver failed to see the other car in time.
   司机没能及时看见另一辆车。
 I happen to know the answer to your question.
   我碰巧知道你那道问题的答案。

2)动词+不定式 ; 动词+宾语+不定式
ask, beg, choose, expect , hate, help intend like, love, need prefer, prepare, promise, want, wish…
   I like to keep everything tidy. 我喜欢每件东西都保持整洁。
   I like you to keep everything tidy. 我喜欢你年使每件东西都保持整洁。
   I want to speak to Tom.  我想和汤姆谈话。
   I want you to speak to Tom.  我想让你和汤姆谈话。

3) 动词+疑问词+ to
decide, know, consider forget, learn, remember, show, understand, see, wonder, hear, find out, explain, tell
  Please show us how to do that. 请演示给我们如何去做。
  There are so many kinds of tape-recorders on sale that I can't make up my mind which to buy.有这么多的录音机,我都拿不定主意买哪一种。

注意:疑问词带不定式在句中作成分时,谓语动词用单数。
   The question is how to put it into practice.
   问题是怎样把它付诸实
7.2 不定式作补语

1) 动词+宾语+不定式(to do)
advise   allow   appoint   believe   cause   challenge command  compel   consider  declare   drive   enable  encourage  find    forbid   force   guess   hire    imagine  impel   induce   inform  instruct  invite   judge    know    like   order    permit  persuade  remind   report  request   require  select send    state   suppose   tell    think  train   trust   understand urge    warn 

例句:
  a. Father will not allow us to play on the street.       
   父亲不让我们在街上玩耍。
  b. We believe him to be guilty.
   我们相信他是有罪的。

Find 的特殊用法:
  Find 后可用分词做宾补,或先加形式宾语,再加形容词,最后加带to 的动词不定式。find后也可带一个从句。此类动词还有get,have。
   I found him lying on the ground.
   I found it important to learn.
   I found that to learn English is important.

典型例题:
  The next morning she found the man ___ in bed,dead. 
  A. lying  B. lie  C. lay  D. laying  
答案:A.find的宾语后面,用分词或分词短语,起宾语补足语作用。现在分词表达主动,也表达正在进行,过去分词表达被动。

2) to + be 的不定式结构,作补语的动词。
Acknowledge,  believe, consider,  think, declare(声称), discover, fancy(设想), feel   find, guess,  judge,  imagine,   know,  prove,     see(理解), show,    suppose,     take(以为),   understand
   We consider Tom to be one of the best students in our class.
   我们认为汤姆是班上最好的学生之一。

典型例题
   Charles Babbage is generally considered ___ the first computer. 
A. to invent B. inventing  C. to have invented  D. having invented 
答案:A. 由consider to do sth. 排除B、D。. 此句只说明发明这一个事实,不定式后用原形即可。而C为现在完成时,发明为点动词一般不用完成时,且此处也不强调对现在的影响,因此不选C。

3) to be +形容词
Seem,     appear,   be said,  be supposed,  be believed, be thought, be known,  be reported, hope, wish,  desire,   want,    plan,  expect,    mean…
 The book is believed to be uninteresting.
 人们认为这本书没什么意思。

4) there be+不定式
believe, expect, intend, like, love, mean, prefer, want, wish, undrstand
 We didn't expect there to be so many people there.我们没料到会有那么多人在哪里。

注意 : 有些动词需用as 短语做补语,如regard, think believe, take, consider.
 We regard Tom as our best teacher. 我们认为汤姆是我们最好的老师。
 Mary took him as her father . 玛丽把他当作自己的父亲。
7.3 不定式主语

1) It's easy (for me) to do that.我做这事太容易了

easy, difficult,  hard,  important,  possible,  impossible, comfortable,  necessary,  better;  
the first,  the next,   the last,  the best, too much,  too little,  not enough
 It's so nice to hear your voice.
 听到你的声音真高兴。
 It's necessary for you to lock the car when you do not use it.
 当你不用车的时候,锁车是有必要的。

2) It's very kind of you to help us. 他帮助我们,他真好。
Kind, nice,  stupid, rude,  clever, foolish, thoughtful, thoughtless, brave, considerate(考虑周到的), silly,  selfish(自私的)
例句:
   It was silly of us to believe him. 我们真愚蠢,竟然相信了他。
   It seemed selfish of him not to give them anything. 他不给他们任何东西,这显得太自私了。

注意:1) 其他系动词如,look,appear等也可用于此句型
   2) 不定式作为句子成分时,动词用单数形式。
   3) 当不定式作主语的句子中又有一个不定式作表语时,不能用It is… to…的句型
    (对)To see is to believe. 百闻不如一见。
    (错)It is to believe to see.

7.4 It's for sb.和 It's of sb.

1)for sb. 常用于表示事物的特征特点,表示客观形式的形容词,如easy, hard, difficult,  interesting, impossible等:
   It's very hard for him to study two languages. 对他来说学两门外语是很难的。
2)of sb的句型一般用表示人物的性格,品德,表示主观感情或态度的形容词,如good, kind, nice, clever, foolish, right。
   It's very nice of you to help me. 你来帮助我,你真是太好了。
 
for 与of 的辨别方法:
  用介词后面的代词作主语,用介词前边的形容词作表语,造个句子。如果道理上通顺用of,不通则用for。如:
   You are nice. (通顺,所以应用of)。
   He is hard. (人是困难的,不通,因此应用for。)



7.5 不定式作表语

 不定式可放在be动词后面,形成表语。例如:
   My work is to clean the room every day.
   His dream is to be a doctor.


7.6 不定式作定语

  不定式做定语通常要放在被修饰的词后。例如:
   I have a lot of work to do. 
   So he made some candles to give light.



7.7 不定式作状语

1)目的状语 
To… only to (仅仅为了), in order to, so as to, so(such)… as to… (如此……以便……)
  He ran so fast as to catch the first bus. 他飞快地跑以便赶上第一班车。
  I come here only to say good-bye to you. 我来仅仅是向你告别。

2)作结果状语,表事先没有预料到的,要放在句子后面。
  What have I said to make you angry.
  He searched the room only to find nothing.

3) 表原因
  I'm glad to see you.

典型例题
 The chair looks rather hard, but in fact it is very comfortable to ___. 
 A. sit  B. sit on  C. be seat  D. be sat on
答案:B. 如果不定式为不及物动词,其后应有必要的介词。当动词与介词连用时,常位于"形容词+动词不定式"结构的末尾
7.8 用作介词的to

  to 有两种用法: 一为不定式+动词原形; 一为介词+名词/动名词, to 在下面的用法中是第二种,即to+ 名词/动名词:

admit to承认,       confess to承认,
be accustomed to 习惯于,  be used to 习惯于, stick to 坚持,       turn to开始,着手于, devote oneself to 献身于, be devoted to 致力于, look forward to 盼望,   pay attention to 注意

7.9 省to 的动词不定式

1) 情态动词 ( 除ought 外,ought to):
2) 使役动词 let, have, make:
3) 感官动词 see, watch, look at, notice , observe, hear, listen to, smell, feel, find 等后作宾补,省略to。
 
注意:在被动语态中则to 不能省掉。
  I saw him dance.
 =He was seen to dance.
  The boss made them work the whole night.
 =They were made to work the whole night.
4) would rather,had better:
5) Why… / why not…:
6) help 可带to,也可不带to, help sb (to) do sth:
7) but和except:but前是动词do时,后面出现的动词用不带to的动词不定式。
8) 由and, or和than连接的两个不定式,第二个to 可以省去:
9) 通常在discover, imagine, suppose, think, understand等词后,可以省去to be: 
   He is supposed (to be) nice. 他应该是个好人。

举例:
   He wants to move to France and marry the girl.
He wants to do nothing but go out.

比较:  He wants to do nothing but go out.
     He wants to believe anything but to take the medicine.

典型例题
1) ---- I usually go there by train. 
  ---- Why not ___ by boat for a change? 
  A. to try going  B. trying to go  C. to try and go  D. try going  
  答案:D. why not 后面接不带to 的不定式,因此选D。

2) Paul doesn't have to be made ___. He always works hard. 
  A. learn  B. to learn  C. learned  D. learning
  答案:B. make后接不带to 的动词不定式,当其用于被动时,to 不可省略。
7.10 动词不定式的否定式

  Tell him not to shut the window… 
  She pretended not to see me when I passed by. 我走过的时候,她假装没看见。

典型例题
1)Tell him ___ the window. 
  A. to shut not  B. not to shut  C. to not shut
  D. not shut 
  答案:B。 tell sb to do sth 的否定形式为tell sb not to do sth.

2) She pretended ___ me when I passed by. 
  A. not to see  B. not seeing  C. to not see
  D. having not seen 
  答案:A。 pretend 后应接不定式。其否定形式为pretend not to do sth.。

3)Mrs. Smith warned her daughter ___ after drinking. 
  A. never to drive  B. to never driver 
  C. never driving  D. never drive 
  答案:A。warn sb to do sth. 的否定形式为warn sb not to do sth. 此处用的是否定词never.

4) The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street,but his mother told him ____. 
  A. not to  B. not to do  C. not do it 
  D. do not to
 答案:A。not to 为not to do it 的省略形式。可以只用to这个词,而不必重复整个不定式词组。及物动词do后应有名词、代词等,否则不对,因此B,D不对。

5) The patient was warned ___ oily food after the operation. 
  A. to eat no  B. eating not  C. not to eat 
  D. not eating
  答案:C。warn一词要求后用不定式,此处为不定式的被动,否定形式为be warned not to do。


7.11 不定式的特殊句型too…to…

1)too…to  太…以至于…
  He is too excited to speak.
  他太激动了,说不出话来。
  ---- Can I help you ? 需要我帮忙吗?
  ---- Well, I'm afraid the box is too heavy for you to carry it, but thank you all the same. 不用了。这箱子太重,恐怕你搬不动。谢谢您。

2) 如在too前有否定词,则整个句子用否定词表达肯定, too 后那个词表达一种委婉含义,意 为"不太"。
  It's never too late to mend. (谚语)
   改过不嫌晚。

3) 当too 前面有only, all, but时,意思是:非常… 等于very。
  I'm only too pleased to be able to help you. 我非常高兴能帮助你。
  He was but too eager to get home. 他非常想回家。
7.12 不定式的特殊句型so as to

1) 表示目的;它的否定式是so as not to do。
   Tom kept quiet about the accident so as not to lose his job. 
     汤姆对事故保持沉默是为了不丢掉他的工作。
   Go in quietly so as not to wake the baby.
     轻点进去,别惊醒了婴儿。

2) so kind as to ---劳驾
   Would you be so kind as to tell me the time?
     劳驾,现在几点了。
7.13 不定式的特殊句型Why not

  "Why not +动词原形"表达向某人提出建议,翻译为:"为什么不……?" "干吗不……?"
例如:
   Why not take a holiday?
   干吗不去度假?

7.14 不定式的时态和语态

时态\语态    主动     被动
一般式      to do      to be done
进行式      to be doing  
完成式      to have done   to have been done
完成进行式    to have been doing  

1) 现在时:一般现在时表示的动词,有时与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生,有时发生在谓语动词的动作之后。
  He seems to know this.
  I hope to see you again. = I hope that I'll see you again. 我希望再见到你。

2) 完成时:表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之前。
 I'm sorry to have given you so much trouble.
 He seems to have caught a cold.

3) 进行时: 表示动作正在进行,与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生。
 He seems to be eating something.

4) 完成进行时:
 She is known to have been wreaking on the problem for many years.

7.15 动名词与不定式

1) 动名词与不定式的区别:
 动名词表达的是: 状态,性质,心境,抽象,经常性,已发生的
 不定式表达的是: 目的,结果,原因,具体,一次性,将发生的

2) 接不定式或动名词,意义相同。

3) 动名词与不定式语义不同的有11 组:
  1 stop to do     stop doing   
  2 forget to do     forget doing
  3 remember to do   remember doing     
  4 regret to do     regret doing
  5 cease to do     cease doing       
  6 try to do      try doing
  7 go on to do     go on doing       
  8 afraid to do     afraid doing
  9 interested to do  interested doing 
 10 mean to do      mean doing
 11 begin/ start to do  begin/ start doing