2007年3月17日星期六

中学英语语法全集(人教版)续

8. 特殊词精讲

8.1 stop doing/to do

stop to do 停止,中断做某事后去做另一件事。
stop doing 停止做某事。
  They stop to smoke a cigarette.  他们停下来,抽了根烟。
  I must stop smoking..      我必须戒烟了。

典型例题
  She reached the top of the hill and stopped ___ on a big rock by the side of the path. 
A. to have rested B. resting  C. to rest D. rest
答案:C。由题意可知,她到了山顶,停下来在一个路边的大石头上休息。因此,应选择"stop to do sth. 停下来去做另一件事"。而不仅仅是爬山动作的终止,所以stop doing sth.不正确。
8.2 forget doing/to do

 forget to do 忘记要去做某事。 (未做)
 forget doing 忘记做过某事。  (已做)
 The light in the office is stil on. He forgot to turn it off.
 办公室的灯还在亮着,它忘记关了。(没有做关灯的动作)
 He forgot turning the light off.
 他忘记他已经关了灯了。    ( 已做过关灯的动作)
 Don't forget to come tomorrow.
 别忘了明天来。         (to come动作未做)

典型例题
 ---- The light in the office is still on.
 ---- Oh,I forgot___.          
  A. turning it off  B. turn it off  C. to turn it off  D. having turned it off
  答案:C。由the light is still on 可知灯亮着,即关灯的动作没有发生,因此用forget to do sth.
而forget doing sth表示灯已经关上了,而自己忘记了这一事实。此处不符合题意。
8.3 remember doing/to do

 remember to do 记得去做某事     (未做)
 remember doing 记得做过某事    (已做)

Remember to go to the post office after school.
记着放学后去趟邮局。
Don't you remember seeing the man before?
你不记得以前见过那个人吗?

8.4 regret doing/to do

regret to do  对要做的事遗憾。     (未做)
regret doing  对做过的事遗憾、后悔。  (已做)
  I regret to have to do this, but I have no choice.
我很遗憾必须这样去做,我实在没有办法。
  I don't regret telling her what I thought. 
我不为告诉她我的想法而后悔。

典型例题
---You were brave enough to raise objections at the meeting.
---Well, now I regret ___ that.
A. to do  B. to be doing  C. to have done  D. having done
答案:D。regret having done sth. 对已发生的事感到遗憾。regret to do sth. 对将要做的事感到遗憾。本题为对已说的话感到后悔,因此选D。
8.5 cease doing/to do

cease to do  长时间,甚至永远停做某事。
cease doing  短时停止做某事,以后还会接着做。

  That department has ceased to exist forever.
  那个部门已不复存在。
  The girls ceased chatting for a moment when their teacher passed by.
  姑娘们在老师走过时,停了会聊天。
8.6 try doing/to do

 try to do  努力,企图做某事。
 try doing  试验,试着做某事。

You must try to be more careful.
 你可要多加小心。
I tried gardening but didn't succeed.
我试着种果木花卉,但未成功。
8.7 go on doing/to do

go on to do 做了一件事后,接着做另一件事。
go on doing  继续做原来做的事。
  After he had finished his maths,he went on to do his physics.
  做完数学后,他接着去做物理。
  Go on doing the other exercise after you have finished this one.
  作完这个练习后,接着做其他的练习


8.8 be afraid doing/to do

be afraid to do 不敢,胆怯去做某事,是主观上的原因不去做,意为"怕";
be afraid of doing 担心出现doing的状况、结果。 doing 是客观上造成的,意为"生怕,恐怕"。

She was afraid to step further in grass because she was afraid of being bitten by a snake.
她生怕被蛇咬着,而不敢在草丛中再走一步。
She was afraid to wake her husband.
她不敢去叫醒她丈夫。
She was afraid of waking her husband.
她生怕吵醒她丈夫。
8.9 be interested doing/to do

 interested to do   对做某事感兴趣,想了解某事。
 interested in doing  对某种想法感兴趣,doing 通常为想法。

I shall be interested to know what happens.
我很想知道发生了什么事。 (想了解)
I'm interested in working in Switzerland. Do you have any idea about that?
我对在瑞士工作感兴趣。你想过这事吗?  (一种想法)

8.10 mean to doing/to do

 mean to do  打算、想
 mean doing 意味着
 I mean to go, but my father would not allow me to.
 我想去,但是我父亲不肯让我去。
 To raise wage means increasing purchasing power.
 赠加工资意味着增加购买力
8.11 begin(start) doing/to do

 begin / start to do sth
 begin / start doing sth.

1) 谈及一项长期活动或开始一种习惯时,使用doing.
  How old were you when you first started playing the piano?
  你几岁时开始弹钢琴?
2) begin, start用进行时时,后面动词用不定式to do
  I was beginning to get angry。
  我开始生起气来。
3) 在attempt, intend, begin, start 后接know, understand, realize这类动词时,常用不定式to do。
  I begin to understand the truth。
  我开始明白真相。
4) 物作主语时
  It began to melt.

8.12 感官动词 + doing/to do

  感官动词 see, watch, observe, notice, look at, hear, listen to, smell, taste, feel + do  表示动作的完整性,真实性;+doing 表示动作的连续性,进行性
 
 I saw him work in the garden yesterday.
 昨天我看见他在花园里干活了。(强调"我看见了"这个事实)
 I saw him working in the garden yesterday.(强调"我见他正干活"这个动作)
 昨天我见他正在花园里干活。

典型例题
1)They knew her very well. They had seen her ___ up from childhood. 
  A. grow  B. grew  C. was growing  D. to grow
  答案:A。因题意为,他们看着她长大,因此强调的是成长的过程,而非正在长的动作,因此用see sb do sth 句型。

2)The missing boy was last seen ___ near the river. 
 A. playing  B. to be playing  C. play  D. to play
 答案A. 本题强调其动作,正在河边玩,应此用see sb. doing sth句型。



分词

9.1 分词作定语


 分词前置 
 We can see the rising sun. 我们可以看到东升的旭日
 He is a retired worker.  他是位退休的工人
 
 分词后置 (i分词词组;ii 个别分词如given, left; iii 修饰不定代词 something等)
 There was a girl sitting there. 有个女孩坐在那里
 This is the question given.   这是所给的问题
 There is nothing interesting.  没有有趣的东西


 过去分词作定语
 与其修饰的词是被动关系,相当于一个被动语态的定语从句。
 Most of the people invited to the party were famous scientists.
 Most of the artists invited to the party were from South Africa.

典型例题
  1) The first textbook ___ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. 
A. have written  B. to be written  C. being written  D. written
答案D. 书与写作是被动关系,应用过去分词做定语表被动,相当于定语从句 which is written
 
  2)What's the language ____ in Germany? 
A. speaking  B. spoken   C. be spoken  D. to speak
答案B. 主语language与谓语动词之间有被动的含义。
  spoken是动词speak的过去分词形式,在句中作定语,修饰主语language, spoken 与 language有被动关系。该句可以理解为:
What's the language (which is) spoken in German?
9.2 分词作状语

  As I didn't receive any letter from him, I gave him a call.
-> Not receiving any letter from him, I gave him a call.
  由于没有收到他的信,我给他打了电话。
  If more attention was given, the trees could have grown better.
-> Given more attention,the trees could have grown better.
 假如多给些照顾,那些树会长得更好。

典型例题
 1)_____ some officials, Napoleon inspected his army.
A. Followed  B. Followed by  C. Being followed  D. Having been followed
 答案B. Napoleon 与follow 之间有被动的含义。being followed除表达被动之外,还有动作正在进行之意。 followed by(被…跟随)。本题可改为:                 With some officials following, Napoleon inspected his army.
 
 2)There was a terrible noise ___ the sudden burst of light. 
A. followed  B. following  C. to be followed  D. being followed
 答案B. 由于声音在闪电后,因此为声跟随着光,声音为跟随的发出者,为主动。用现在分词。
 
 3)_______, liquids can be changed into gases.
A. Heating  B. To be heated  C. Heated  D. Heat
 答案C. 本题要选一分词作为状语。现在分词表主动,正在进行的;过去分词表被动的,已经完成的。对于液体来说是加热的受动者,是被动的,因而选C。它相当于一个状语从句 When it is heated,…


  注意: 选择现在分词还是过去分词,关键看主句的主语。如分词的动作是主句的主语发出,分词就选用现在分词,反之就用过去分词。
(Being ) used for a long time, the book looks old.
  由于用了很长时间,这本书看上去很旧。
Using the book, I find it useful.
  在使用的过程中, 我发现这本书很有用。
9.3 连词+分词(短语)

  有时为使分词短语与主句关系更清楚,可在分词前加连词。 连词有: when,while,if though,after, before, as. 但分词的主语和主句的主语必须为同一个,如:
  While waiting there, he saw two pretty girls come out of the building.
  waiting 和saw 的主语相同。
9.4 分词作补语

  通常在感官动词和使役动词之后,如:
  I found my car missing. 我发现我的车不见了。
  I'll have my watch repaired. 我想把我的手表修一下。
9.5 分词作表语

现在分词: 表示主动,正在进行
过去分词: 表示被动,已经完成
  She looked tired with cooking. 她由于忙着做饭,看上去有些疲倦。
  He remained standing beside the table. 他依然站在桌旁
9.6 分词作插入语

  其结构是固定的,意思上的主语并不是句子的主语。
 generally speaking 一般说来
 talking of (speaking of) 说道
 strictly speaking 严格的说
 judging from 从…判断
 all things considered 从整体来看
 taking all things into consideration 全面看来


  Judging from his face, he must be ill. 从他的脸色看,他一定是病了。
  Generally speaking, dogs can run faster than pigs. 总的来说,狗比猪跑得快。 (speaking 并不是dogs 的动作)

9.7 分词的时态

1)与主语动词同时,
 Hearing the news, he jumped with joy.  听到这一消息,他高兴得手舞足蹈。
 Arriving there, they found the boy dead. 刚一到那儿,他们就发现那男孩死了。

典型例题
  The secretary worked late into the night, ___a long speech for the president.
A. to prepare  B. preparing  C. prepared  D. was preparing 
  答案B. 此处没有连词,不能选D,否则出现了两个谓语动词worked和was preparing。 只能在B,C中选一个。又因前后两个动作同时发生,且与主语为主动关系,应用现在分词。

2)先于主动词
  While walking in the garden,he hurt his leg. 在花园里散步时他伤了腿。
  分词作时间状语,如果先与主动词的动作,且强调先后, 要用having done。
  Having finished his homework, he went out.
  =As he had finished his homework, he went out.
   做完作业后,他出去了。

典型例题
  ___ a reply, he decided to write again. 
A. Not receiving  B. Receiving not  C. Not having received  D. Having not received  
  答案C. 本题考查分词的时态与分词的否定式。根据题意判断,分词的动作(接信)发生在谓语动词的动作(决心再写信)之前,因此用分词的完成式。分词的否定式的构成为not +分词,故选C。该句可理解为:Because he had not received a reply, he decided to write again.
9.8 分词的语态

1)通常,现在分词表示主动,过去分词表示被动,例如:
He is the man giving you the money. (= who gave you…) 他就是给你钱的那个人。
He is the man stopped by the car.  ( = who was stopped by…)
他就是那个被车拦住的人。

2)不及物动词的过去分词表示动作已经发生 
gone, fallen, retired, grown-up, escaped, faded, returned
例: a well-read person.  一个读过许多书的人
   a much-travelled may 一个去过许多地方的人
   a burnt-out match   烧完了的火柴
10. 独立主格

10.1 独立主格

(一): 独立主格结构的构成:
名词(代词)+现在分词、过去分词;
名词(代词)+形容词;
名词(代词)+副词;
名词(代词)+不定式;
名词(代词) +介词短语构成。 

(二) 独立主格结构的特点:
  1)独立主格结构的逻辑主语与句子的主语不同,它独立存在。
  2)名词或代词与后面的分词,形容词,副词,不定 式,介词等是主谓关系。
  3)独立主格结构一般有逗号与主句分开。
举例:
  The test finished, we began our holiday.
 = When the test was finished, we began our holiday.
  考试结束了,我们开始放假。
  
  The president assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow.
 = After the president was assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow.
  总统被谋杀了,举国上下沉浸在悲哀之中。


  Weather permitting, we are going to visit you tomorrow. 
  如果天气允许,我们明天去看你。
This done, we went home.   
  工作完成后,我们才回家。


  The meeting gone over, everyone tired to go home earlier. 
  会议结束后,每个人都想早点回家。


  He came into the room, his ears red with cold.
他回到了房子里,耳朵冻坏了。
  
  He came out of the library, a large book under his arm.
 他夹着本厚书,走出了图书馆
10.2 With的复合结构作独立主格

  表伴随时,既可用分词的独立结构,也可用with的复合结构。
  with +名词(代词)+现在分词/过去分词/形容词/副词/不定式/介词短语
举例: He stood there, his hand raised.
  = He stood there, with his hand raise.

典型例题
  The murder was brought in, with his hands ___ behind his back。
A. being tied  B. having tied  C. to be tied  D. tied  
  答案D. with +名词(代词)+分词+介词短语结构。当分词表示伴随状况时,其主语常常用with来引导。由于本句中名词"手"与分词"绑"是被动关系,因此用过去分词,选D.  

注意:

1) 独立主格结构使用介词的问题:
  当介词是in时,其前后的两个名词均不加任何成分(如物主代词或冠词),也不用复数。但 with 的复合结构不受此限制
  A robber burst into the room, knife in hand. 
  ( hand前不能加his)。     

2) 当表人体部位的词做逻辑主语时,及物动词用现在分 词,不及物动词用过去分词。
  He lay there, his teeth set, his hand clenched, his eyes looking straight up.
 
典型例题:
 Weather___, we'll go out for a walk.
 A permitted  B permitting  C permits  D for permitting
  答案B. 本题中没有连词,它不是复合句,也不是并列句。 句中使用了逗号,且we 小写,可知其不是两个简单句。能够这样使用的只有独立主格或with的复合结构。据此判断,本句中使用的是独立结构, 其结构为:名词+分词。 由于permit在这里翻译为'天气允许',表主动,应用现在分词,故选B。
  如果不会判断独立结构作状语的形式,不妨将句子改为条件句,例如本句改为If weather permits, we'll go out for a walk. 然后将if 去掉,再将谓语动词改为非谓语动词即可。
11. 动词的时态

11.1 一般现在时的用法

1) 经常性或习惯性的动作,常与表示频腮度的时间状语连用。
  时间状语: every…, sometimes, at…, on Sunday
  I leave home for school at 7 every morning.

2) 客观真理,客观存在,科学事实。
  The earth moves around the sun.
  Shanghai lies in the east of China.
3) 表示格言或警句中。
  Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败。


  注意:此用法如果出现在宾语从句中,即使主句是过去时,从句谓语也要用一般现在时。
例:Columbus proved that the earth is round..

4) 现在时刻的状态、能力、性格、个性。
  I don't want so much.
  Ann Wang writes good English but does not speak well.
比较:Now I put the sugar in the cup.
   I am doing my homework now.


  第一句用一般现在时,用于操作演示或指导说明的示范性动作,表示言行的瞬间动作。再如:Now watch me, I switch on the current and stand back. 第二句中的now是进行时的标志,表示正在进行的动作的客观状况,所以后句用一般现在时。
11.2 一般过去时的用法

1)在确定的过去时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态。
  时间状语有:yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982等。
  Where did you go just now?

2)表示在过去一段时间内,经常性或习惯性的动作。
  When I was a child, I often played football in the street.
  Whenever the Browns went during their visit, they were given a warm welcome.     

3)句型:
  It is time for sb. to do sth  "到……时间了"  "该……了"
  It is time sb. did sth. "时间已迟了"  "早该……了"
  It is time for you to go to bed.  你该睡觉了。
  It is time you went to bed.   你早该睡觉了。
  would (had) rather sb. did sth. 表示'宁愿某人做某事'
  I'd rather you came tomorrow.

4) wish, wonder, think, hope 等用过去时,作试探性的询问、请求、建议等。
 I thought you might have some. 我以为你想要一些。

比较:
  一般过去时表示的动作或状态都已成为过去,现已不复存在。
 Christine was an invalid all her life. 
  (含义:她已不在人间。)
 Christine has been an invalid all her life. 
  (含义:她现在还活着)
 Mrs. Darby lived in Kentucky for seven years.
  (含义:达比太太已不再住在肯塔基州。)
 Mrs. Darby has lived in Kentucky for seven years.
 ( 含义:现在还住在肯塔基州,有可能指刚离去)
  
注意: 用过去时表示现在,表示委婉语气。
1)动词want, hope, wonder, think, intend 等。
   Did you want anything else?
   I wondered if you could help me.
2)情态动词 could, would.
   Could you lend me your bike?



11.3 used to / be used to

  used to + do:"过去常常"表示过去习惯性的动作或状态,但如今已不存在。
  Mother used not to be so forgetful.  
  Scarf used to take a walk.  (过去常常散步)


  be used to + doing: 对……已感到习惯,或"习惯于",to是介词,后需加名词或动名词。
  He is used to a vegetarian diet.  
  Scarf is used to taking a walk.(现在习惯于散步)

典型例题   
---- Your phone number again? I ___ quite catch it.
---- It's 69568442.      
A. didn't  B. couldn't C. don't D. can't
  答案A. 本句虽没有明确的时间状语,但从语意上看 出,在听的时候没有听懂这个动作发生在过去,因此应用过去时。


11.4 一般将来时

1) shall用于第一人称,常被will 所代替。
  will 在陈述句中用于各人称,在争求意见时常用于第二人称。
  Which paragraph shall I read first.
  Will you be at home at seven this evening?

2) be going to +不定式,表示将来。
  a. 主语的意图,即将做某事。
   What are you going to do tomorrow?
  b. 计划,安排要发生的事。
   The play is going to be produced next month。
  c. 有迹象要发生的事
   Look at the dark clouds, there is going to be a storm.

3)  be +不定式表将来,按计划或正式安排将发生的事。
   We are to discuss the report next Saturday.

4) be about to +不定式,意为马上做某事。
  He is about to leave for Beijing.
  注意:be about to 不能与tomorrow, next week 等表示明确将来时的时间状语连用
11.5 be going to / will

用于条件句时, be going to 表将来
        will 表意愿
  If you are going to make a journey, you'd better get ready for it as soon as possible.
  Now if you will take off your clothes, we will fit the new clothes on you in front of the mirror.

11.6 be to和be going to

   be to 表示客观安排或受人指示而做某事。
   be going to 表示主观的打算或计划。
 I am to play football tomorrow afternoon.   (客观安排)
 I'm going to play football tomorrow afternoon. (主观安排)
11.7 一般现在时表将来

1)下列动词:come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return的一般现在时表将来。这主要用来表示在时间上已确定或安排好的事情。
   The train leaves at six tomorrow morning.
   When does the bus star? It stars in ten minutes.

2)倒装句,表示动作正在进行,如:
    Here comes the bus. = The bus is coming.
    There goes the bell. = The bell is ringing.

3)在时间或条件句中。
    When Bill comes (不是will come), ask him to wait for me.
    I'll write to you as soon as I arrive there.

4)在动词hope, take care that, make sure that等后。
    I hope they have a nice time next week.
    Make sure that the windows are closed before you leave the room.

11.8 用现在进行时表示将来

  意为:"意图"、"打算"、"安排"、常用于人。常用词为 come, go, start, arrive, leave, stay等。
  I'm leaving tomorrow.
  Are you staying here till next week?

11.9 现在完成时

  现在完成时用来表示之前已发生或完成的动作或状 态,其结果的确和现在有联系。动作或状态发生在过去 但它的影响现在还存在;也可表示持续到现在的动作或 状态。其构成: have (has) +过去分词。
11.10 比较过去时与现在完成时

  1)过去时表示过去某时发生的动作或单纯叙述过去的事情,强调动作;现在完成时为过去发生的,强调过去的事情对现在的影响,强调的是影响。
 
  2)过去时常与具体的时间状语连用,而现在完成时通常与模糊的时间状语连用,或无时间状语。

一般过去时的时间状语:
yesterday, last week,…ago, in1980, in October, just now, 具体的时间状语

共同的时间状语: 
this morning, tonight,this April, now, once,before, already, recently,lately 

现在完成时的时间状语
for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet,      till / until, up to now, in past years, always,
不确定的时间状语
 
  3)现在完成时可表示持续到现在的动作或状态,动词一般是延续性的,如live, teach, learn, work, study, know.
  过去时常用的非持续性动词有come, go, leave, start, die, finish, become, get married等。
 举例:
  I saw this film yesterday.
  (强调看的动作发生过了。)
  I have seen this film.
  (强调对现在的影响,电影的内容已经知道了。) 
  Why did you get up so early?
  (强调起床的动作已发生过了。)
  Who hasn't handed in his paper? 
  (强调有卷子,可能为不公平竞争。)
  She has returned from Paris. 
   她已从巴黎回来了。
  She returned yesterday.
   她是昨天回来了。
  He has been in the League for three years.
  (在团内的状态可延续)
  He has been a League member for three years.
  (是团员的状态可持续)
  He joined the League three years ago. 
  ( 三年前入团,joined为短暂行为。)
  I have finished my homework now. 
 
  ---Will somebody go and get Dr. White?
  ---He's already been sent for. 
  句子中如有过去时的时间副词(如 yesterday, last, week, in 1960)时,不能使用现在完成时,要用过去时。
  (错)Tom has written a letter to his parents last night.
  (对)Tom wrote a letter to his parents last night.
11.11 用于现在完成时的句型

1)It is the first / second time…. that…结构中的从句部分,用现在完成时。
  It is the first time that I have visited the city.
  It was the third time that the boy had been late.

2)This is the… that…结构,that 从句要用现在完成时.
  This is the best film that I've (ever) seen.
    这是我看过的最好的电影。
  This is the first time (that) I've heard him sing. 这是我第一次听他唱歌。

典型例题
(1) ---Do you know our town at all? 
  ---No, this is the first time I ___ here.
A. was  B. have been  C. came  D. am coming
  答案B. This is the first time 后面所加从句应为现在完成时,故选B。

(2) ---Have you ____ been to our town before?
  ---No, it's the first time I ___ here.
A. even, come  B. even, have come  C. ever, come  D. ever, have come
  答案D. ever意为曾经或无论何时,反意词为never,此两词常用于完成时。 This is the largest fish I have ever seen. It is / was the first time +that-clause 的句型中,从句要用完成时。
  注意:非延续性动词的否定形式可以与表示延续时间的状语连用。即动作不发生的状态是可以持续的。
(错)I have received his letter for a month.
(对)I haven't received his letter for almost a month.
11.12 比较since和for

  Since 用来说明动作起始时间,for用来说明动作延续时间长度。
  I have lived here for more than twenty years.
  I have lived here since I was born..
  My aunt has worked in a clinic since 1949. 
  Some new oilfields have been opened up since 1976.
  I have known Xiao Li since she was a little girl. 
  My brother has been in the Youth League for two years. 
  I have not heard from my uncle for a long time.


  注意:并非有for 作为时间状语的句子都用现在完成时。
   I worked here for more than twenty years.
   (我现在已不在这里工作。)
   I have worked here for many years.   
   (现在我仍在这里工作。)


  小窍门: 当现在完成时+一段时间,这一结构中,我们用下面的公式转化,很容易就能排除非延续动词在完成时中的误使。
  1) (对) Tom has studied Russian for three years.
    = Tom began to study Russian three years ago, and is still studying it now.
  2) (错) Harry has got married for six years.
    = Harry began to get married six years ago, and is still getting married now.
  显然,第二句不对,它应改为 Harry got married six years ago. 或 Harry has been married for six years.


11.13 since的四种用法

  1) since +过去一个时间点 (如具体的年、月、日期、钟点、1980, last month, half past six)。
  I have been here since 1989.
 
  2) since +一段时间+ ago
  I have been here since five months ago.


  3) since +从句 
  Great changes have taken place since you left.
  Considerable time has elapsed since we have been here.


  4) It is +一段时间+ since从句
  It is two years since I became a postgraduate student.
11.14 延续动词与瞬间动词

1) 用于完成时的区别
  延续动词表示经验、经历; 瞬间动词表示行为的结 果,不能与表示段的时间状语连用。
   He has completed the work.  他已完成了那项工作。 (表结果)
   I've known him since then.   我从那时起就认识他了。(表经历)

2) 用于till / until从句的差异
   延续动词用于肯定句,表示"做……直到……" 瞬间动词用于否定句,表示"到……,才……"
   He didn't come back until ten o'clock.
    他到10 点才回来。
   He slept until ten o'clock.     
    他一直睡到10点。
 
典型例题
1. You don't need to describe her. I ___ her several times. 
A. had met B. have met  C. met D. meet
  答案B. 首先本题后句强调对现在的影响,我知道她的模样,你不用描述。再次,several times告知为反复发生的动作,因此用现在完成时。

2.---I'm sorry to keep you waiting.
 ---Oh, not at all. I ___ here only a few minutes.
A. have been  B. had been  C. was D. will be
  答案A. 等待的动作由过去开始,持续到现在,应用现在完成时。
11.15 过去完成时

1) 概念:表示过去的过去
-------------------->其构成是had +过去分词构成。
那时以前  那时 现在      

2) 用法
 a. 在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句。
   She said (that) she had never been to Paris.
 b. 状语从句
   在过去不同时间发生的两个动作中,发生在先,用过去完成时;发生在后,用一般过去时。
   When the police arrived, the thieves had run away.
 c. 表示意向的动词,如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等,用过去完成时表示"原本…,未能…"
   We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't.

3) 过去完成时的时间状语before, by, until , when, after, once, as soon as。
  He said that he had learned some English before.
  By the time he was twelve, Edison had began to make a living by himself.
 Tom was disappointed that most of the guests had left when he arrived at the party.

典型例题 
  The students ___ busily when Miss Brown went to get a book she ___ in the office. 
A. had written, left B,were writing, has left  C. had written, had left D. were writing, had left
  答案D. "把书忘在办公室"发生在"去取书"这一过去的动作之前,因此"忘了书"这一动作发生在过去的过去,用过去完成时。句中when表示的是时间的一点,表示在"同学们正忙于……"这一背景下,when所引导的动作发生。因此
前一句应用过去进行时。

注意: had no … when     还没等…… 就……
    had no sooner… than  刚…… 就……
  He had no sooner bought the car than he sold it.



11.16 用一般过去时代替完成时

1) 两个动作如按顺序发生,又不强调先后,或用then,and,but 等连词时,多用一般过去时。
   When she saw the mouse,she screamed.
   My aunt gave me a hat and I lost it.

2 ) 两个动作相继发生,可用一般过去时;如第一个动作需要若干时间完成,用过去完成时。
   When I heard the news, I was very excited.

3) 叙述历史事实,可不用过去完成时,而只用一般过去时。
   Our teacher told us that Columbus discovered America in 1492.



11.17 将来完成时

 1) 构成will / be going to do sth.
 2) 概念 
  a. 状态完成:表示某事继续到将来某一时为止一直有的状态。
  b. 动作完成:表示将来某一时或另一个将来的动作之前,已经完成的动作或一获得的经验。
   They will have been married for 20 years by then.
   You will have reached Shanghai by this time tomorrow
11.18 现在进行时

 现在进行时的基本用法:
 a. 表示现在( 指说话人说话时) 正在发生的事情。
   We are waiting for you.
 b. 习惯进行:表示长期的或重复性的动作,说话时动作未必正在进行。
   Mr. Green is writing another novel. 
   (说话时并未在写,只处于写作的状态。)
   She is learning piano under Mr. Smith.
 c. 表示渐变的动词有:get, grow, become, turn, run, go, begin等。
   The leaves are turning red.
   It's getting warmer and warmer.
 d. 与always, constantly, forever 等词连用,表示反复发生的动作或持续存在的状态,往往带有说话人的主观色彩。
   You are always changing your mind.

典型例题
  My dictionary ___, I have looked for it everywhere but still___ it. 
 A. has lost, don't find   B. is missing, don't find C. has lost, haven't found  D. is missing, haven't found.  
  答案D. 前句是一个仍在持续的状态,应用进行时,由于没有找到,其影响仍然存在,应用完成时,瞬间动词用于否定式时可用于完成时。
11.19 不用进行时的动词

 1) 事实状态的动词
have, belong, possess, cost, owe, exist, include, contain, matter, weigh, measure, continue
  I have two brothers.
  This house belongs to my sister.


 2) 心理状态的动词
Know, realize, think see, believe, suppose, imagine, agree, recognize, remember, want, need, forget, prefer, mean, understand, love, hate
  I need your help.
  He loves her very much.


 3 ) 瞬间动词
accept, receive, complete, finish, give, allow, decide, refuse.
  I accept your advice.


 4) 系动词
seem, remain, lie, see, hear, smell, feel, taste, get, become, turn
  You seem a little tired.



11.20 过去进行时

1) 概念:表示过去某时正在进行的状态或动作。

2) 过去进行时的主要用法是描述一件事发生的背景;一个长动作发生的时候,另一个短动作发生。

3) 常用的时间状语
this morning, the whole morning, all day yesterday, from nine to ten last evening, when, while


   My brother fell while he was riding his bicycle and hurt himself. 
   It was raining when they left the station.
   When I got to the top of the mountain, the sun was shining. 

典型例题
1) Mary ___ a dress when she cut her finger. 
A. made  B. is making  C. was making  D. makes
  答案C. 割伤手指是已发生的事情,应用过去时。同 时,when表时间的同时性,"玛丽在做衣服时"提供事情发生的背景,因此用过去进行时。

2) As she ___ the newspaper, Granny ___ asleep.
read; was falling B. was reading; fell C. was reading; was falling D. read;fell
  答案B.句中的as = when, while,意为"当……之时"。描述一件事发生的背景时,用过去进行;一个长动作发生的时候,另一个短动作发生。句意为 "在她看报纸时,奶奶睡着了。"句中的 fell (fall的过去时),是系动词,后跟形容词,如:fall sick。


11.21 将来进行时

1) 概念:表示将来某时进行的状态或动作,或按预测将来会发生的事情。
   She'll be coming soon.
   I'll be meeting him sometime in the future.
注意:将来进行时不用于表示"意志",不能说 I'll be having a talk with her.

2)常用的时间状语
Soon, tomorrow, this evening,on Sunday, by this time,tomorrow, in two days, tomorrow evening


   By this time tomorrow, I'll be lying on the beach.

11.22 一般现在时代替将来时

时间状语从句,条件句中,从句用一般现在时代替将来时
When, while, before, after, till, once, as soon as, so long as, by the time, if, in case (that), unless, even if, whether, the moment, the minute, the day, the year, immediately


 He is going to visit her aunt the day he arrives in Beijing. 他一到北京,就去看他姨妈。

典型例题
(1)He said he________me a present unless I_______ in doing the experiment.
 A. had not given; had not succeeded  B. would not give; succeed
 C. will not give; succeed       D. would not give; will succeed.
  答案B. 在时间,条件或让步主语从句中一般不用将来时。本题有He said,故为过去式。主句用将来时,故选B. 此处用一般过去式代替了过去将来时。

(2) 表示现在已安排好的未来事项,行程等活动。
  The museum opens at ten tomorrow. 博物馆明天10点开门。(实际上每天如此。)

11.23 一般现在时代替过去时

1 )"书上说","报纸上说"等。
  The newspaper says that it's going to be cold tomorrow.
  报纸上说明天会很冷的。
2) 叙述往事,使其生动。
  Napoleon's army now advances and the great battle begins.
11.24 一般现在时代替完成时

1) 有些动词用一般现在时代替完成时:
hear, tell, learn, write , understand, forget, know, find , say, remember.
 I hear (= have heard) he will go to London.
 I forget (=have forgotten) how old he is.
2) 句型 " It is … since…"代替"It has been … since …"
3) It is (= has been) five years since we last met.
11.25 一般现在时代替进行时

1) 句型:Here comes… ; There goes…
  Look, here comes Mr. Li.

11.26 现在进行时代替将来时

1) 表示即将发生的或预定中计划好的活动。
  Are you staying with us this weekend? 这周和我们一起度周末吗?
  We are leaving soon.  我们马上就走。
2) 渐变动词,如:get, run, grow, become, begin及die。
  He is dying.
11.27 时态一致

  1) 如果从句所叙述的为真理或不变的事实,则永远用现在时。
 At that time, people did not know that the earth moves.
 He told me last week that he is eighteen.


  2) 宾语从句中的助动词ought, need, must, dare 时态是不变的。
 He thought that I need not tell you the truth.

11.28 时态与时间状语

         时间状语
一般现在时  every …, sometimes, at …, on Sunday,

一般过去时  yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982, just now

一般将来时  next…, tomorrow, in+时间,

现在完成时  for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till/until, up to now, in past years, always, recently

过去完成时  before, by, until, when, after, once, as soon as

过去进行时  this morning, the whole morning, all day, yesterday, from nine to ten last evening… when, while

将来进行时  soon, tomorrow, this evening, on Sunday, by this time, tomorrow, in two days, tomorrow evening

1 条评论:

moliwenyuan 说...

动词的语态

  语态有两种:主动语态和被动语态。
  主语是动作的发出者为主动语态;主语是动作的接受者为被动语态。
 1)若宾语补足语是不带to 的不定式,变为被动语态 时,该不定式前要加"to"。此类动词为感官动词。
feel, hear, help, listen to, look at, make, observe, see, notice, watch


  The teacher made me go out of the classroom.
--> I was made to go out of the classroom (by the teacher).
  We saw him play football on the playground.
--> He was seen to play football on the playground.


 2)情态动词+ be +过去分词,构成被动语态。
   Coal can be used to produce electricity for agriculture and industry.

12.1 let 的用法

 1)当let后只有一个单音节动词,变被动语态时,可用不带to 的不定式。
   They let the strange go.---> The strange was let go.
 
 2) 若let 后宾补较长时,let 通常不用被动语态,而用allow或permit 代替。
  The nurse let me go to see my classmate in the hospital.
  ----> I was allowed / permitted to see my classmate in the hospital
12.2 短语动词的被动语态

 短语动词是一个整体,不可丢掉后面的介词或副词。
  This is a photo of the power station that has been set up in my hometown.
  My sister will be taken care of by Grandma.  
  Such a thing has never been heard of before..
12.3 表示"据说"或"相信" 的词组

  believe, consider, declare, expect, feel , report, say, see, suppose, think, understand

It is said that…   据说  
It is reported that… 据报道   
It is believed that… 大家相信     
It is hoped that… 大家希望
It is well known that… 众所周知  
It is thought that… 大家认为
It is suggested that… 据建议     
It is taken granted that…  被视为当然 
It has been decided that… 大家决定  
It must be remember that…务必记住的是

It is said that she will leave for Wuhan on Tuesday.


12.4 不用被动语态的情况

 1) 不及物动词或动词短语无被动语态:
appear, die disappear, end (vi. 结束), fail, happen, last, lie, remain, sit, spread, stand
break out, come true, fall asleep, keep silence, lose heart, take place.
 After the fire, very little remained of my house.


 比较: rise, fall, happen是不及物动词;raise, seat是及物动词。
  
 (错) The price has been risen.
 (对) The price has risen.
 (错) The accident was happened last week.   
 (对) The accident happened last week.
 (错) The price has raised.          
 (对) The price has been raised.
 (错) Please seat.              
 (对) Please be seated.
  要想正确地使用被动语态,就须注意哪些动词是及物的,哪些是不及物的。特别是一词多义的动词往往有两种用法。解决这一问题唯有在学习过程中多留意积累。

  2) 不能用于被动语态的及物动词或动词短语:
fit, have, hold, marry, own, wish, cost, notice, watch agree with, arrive at / in, shake hands with, succeed in, suffer from, happen to, take part in, walk into, belong to

 This key just fits the lock.
 Your story agrees with what had already been heard.
 
  3) 系动词无被动语态:
appear, be become, fall, feel, get, grow, keep, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn
   It sounds good.
 
  4) 带同源宾语的及物动词,反身代词,相互代词,不能用于被动语态:
die, death, dream, live, life
  She dreamed a bad dream last night.
 
  5) 当宾语是不定式时,很少用于被动语态。
   (对) She likes to swim.
   (错) To swim is liked by her.


12.5 主动形式表示被动意义

 1)wash, clean, cook, iron, look, cut, sell, read, wear, feel, draw, write, sell, drive…
  The book sells well.  这本书销路好。
  This knife cuts easily.  这刀子很好用。



 2)blame, let(出租), remain, keep, rent, build
  I was to blame for the accident.
  Much work remains.



 3) 在need, require, want, worth (形容词), deserve后的动名词必须用主动形式。
  The door needs repairing.= The door needs to be repaired.
  This room needs cleaning. 这房间应该打扫一下。
  This book is worth reading. 这本书值得一读。



 4) 特殊结构:make sb. heard / understood (使别人能听见/理解自己),have sth. done ( 要某人做某事)。


12.6 被动形式表示主动意义

be determined, be pleased, be graduated (from), be finished, be prepared (for), be occupied (in), get marries
  He is graduated from a famous university.
  他毕业于一所有名的大学。

注意: 表示同某人结婚,用marry sb. 或get married to sb. 都可。
  He married a rich girl.
  He got married to a rich girl
12.7 need/want/require/worth

  注意:当 need, want, require, worth(形容词)后面接doing也可以表示被动。
   Your hair wants cutting. 你的头发该理了。
   The floor requires washing. 地板需要冲洗。
   The book is worth reading. 这本书值得一读。

典型例题
  The library needs___, but it'll have to wait until Sunday. 
A. cleaning  B. be cleaned  C. clean  D. being cleaned
  答案A. need (实意) +n /to do,need (情态)+ do,当为被动语态时,还可need + doing. 本题考最后一种用法,选A。如有to be clean 则也为正确答案。
典:done,"不可能已经"。must not do 不可以(用于一般现在时)。

13. 句子的种类

(一)按使用目的可分为陈述句、疑问句、祈使句和感叹句。
1) 陈述句(Declarative Sentences):说明一个事实或陈述一种看法。
  Light travels faster than sound. 光比声速度快。  (说明事实)
 The film is rather boring. 这部电影很乏味。
(说明看法)

2) 疑问句(Interrogative Sentences):提出问题。有以下四种:
  a. 一般疑问句(General Questions):
    Can you finish the work in time?
     你能按时完成工作吗?
  b. 特殊疑问句(W Questions; H Questions):
    Where do you live? 你住那儿?
    How do you know that? 你怎么知道那件事?
  c. 选择疑问句(Alternative Questions):
    Do you want tea or coffee?
     你是要茶还是要咖啡?
  d. 反意疑问句(Tag-Questions):
    He doesn't know her, does he? 
     他不认识她,对不对?

3) 祈使句(Imperative Sentences):提出请求,建议或发出命令,例如:
   Sit down, please. 请坐。
   Don't be nervous! 别紧张!

4) 感叹句(Exclamatory Sentences):表示说话人惊奇、喜悦、愤怒等情绪,例如:
   What good news it is! 多好的消息啊!

(二)句子按其结构可以分为以下三类:
1) 简单句(Simple Sentences):只包含一个主谓结构句子叫简单句,例如:

She is fond of collecting stamps.  她喜欢集邮。
(主)  (谓)

2) 并列句(Compound Sentences):包含两个或两个以上主谓结构的句子叫并列句,句与句之间通常用并列连词或分号来连接,例如:

  The food was good, but he had little appetite.
 (主)   (谓)      (主)(谓)
  食物很精美,但他却没什么胃口。

3) 复合句(Complex Sentences):包含一个主句从句和一个或几个从句的句子叫复合句,从句由从属连词引导,例如:
 The film had begun when we got to the cinema.
      主句       从句
 我们到达电影院的时候,电影已经开演了。

(三)基本句型(Basic Sentence Patterns):英语中千变万化的句子归根结底都是由以下五种基本句型组合、扩展、变化而来的:
1)主 + 动(SV)例如:
  I work. 我工作。
2)主 + 动 + 表(SVP)例如:
  John is busy. 约翰忙。
3)主 + 动 + 宾(SVO)例如:
  She studies English. 她学英语。
4)主 + 动 + 宾 + 补(SVOC)例如:
  Time would prove me right. 时间会证明我是对的。
5)主 + 动 + 间宾 + 直宾(SVOiOd)例如:
  My mother made me a new dress. 我母亲给我做了一件新衣裳。

13.1 祈使句结构

  祈使句用以表达命令,要求,请求,劝告等。

1) 祈使句有两种类型,一种是以动词原形开头,在动词原形之前加do (但只限于省略第二人称主语的句子)。
    Take this seat.
    Do be careful.
 否定结构:
   Don't move.
   Don't be late.

2) 第二种祈使句以let开头。
  Let 的反意疑问句
 a. Let's 包括说话者 
   Let's have another try,shall we / shan't we?
  = Shall we have another try?


 b. Let us 不包括说话者
   Let us have another try,will you / won't you?
  = Will you please let us have another try?

否定结构:
 Let's not talk of that matter.
 Let us not talk of that matter.
13.2 感叹句结构

  感叹句通常有what, how引导,表示赞美、惊叹、喜 悦、等感情。
  what修饰名词,how 修饰形容词,副词或动词,感叹句结构主要有以下几种:
  掌握它的搭配,即掌握了感叹句的重点。

How +形容词+ a +名词+       陈述语序   
How+形容词或副词+         陈述语序
What +名词+            陈述语序
What+a+形容词+名词+        陈述语序
What+ 形容词+复数名词+       陈述语序
What+ 形容词+不可数名词+      陈述语序

How clever a boy he is!
How lovely the baby is!
What noise they are making!
What a clever boy he is!
What wonderful ideas (we have)!
What cold weather it is!
感叹句的省略形式为:
What a clever boy (he is)!

典型例题
1)___ food you've cooked!
A. How a nice  B. What a nice  C. How nice  D. What nice
 答案D. 由于How 修饰形容词,副词;what修饰名词。且food为不可数名词,因此A,B 排除。C How + adj. 后面不能再加名词,因此只有D正确,其句型为What + adj. +n. (不可数)

2)___terrible weather we've been having these days! 
A. What  B. What a  C. How  D. How a 
 答案A. weather为不可数名词,B,D排除。C为how + adj. 后面不应有名词。只有A,符合句型What +形容词+不可数名词。

3) --- _____ I had!
  --- You really suffered a lot.
A. What a time  B. What time   C. How a time   D. how time
 答案A. 感叹句分两类:
     1:What + n.+主谓部分
     2:How + adj. / adv. / v.+主谓部分。本题属第一种,但省略了bad,相对于 What a bad time I had! 这是个习惯用语。
13.3 强调句结构

  常考的强调句结构是it 引导的句子。
  It is (was) 被强调部分+ that (who) + 句子其他部分。


  此结构强调的成分仅限于主语,宾语和状语。
   It is from the sun that we get light and heat.
   It was not until I had read your letter that I understood the true state of affairs.


典型例题
1) It was last night ___ I see the comet.
A. the time B. when  C. that  D. which
  答案C. 强调句的结构是: It +be +强调部分 + that (who) + 主谓句。 强调句的连词只有两个,that和who。当强调的部分是人,且为句子的主语时,才用 "who",其余用that。


 原句: My father did the experiment in the lab yesterday evening.
 强调主语: It was my father who did the experiment in the lab yesterday evening.
 强调宾语: It was the experiment that my father did in the lab yesterday evening.
 强调时间: It was yesterday evening that my father did the experiment in the lab. (注意不用when)
 强调地点: It was in the lab that my father did the experiment yesterday evening.

2)It is ten years ___ Miss Green returned to Canada.
A. that B. when  C. since  D. as
  答案C. 考点是连词用法。 本题易误选为A. that. 其实本句不是强调句。若是,去掉It  be… that还应是一个完整的句子。而本句去掉 'It is…that',只剩下ten years Miss Green returned to Canada. 不成句。因此本句不是强调句。
  It is /was +时间+ since… 其中is<---> has been  was <---> had been.


13.4 用助动词进行强调

  强调句还有一种类型,就是用助动词do (did,does) 强调谓语。
 She does like this horse. 她的确喜欢这匹马。
 Please do take care of yourself. 千万保重。

13.5 反意疑问句

1) 陈述部分的主语是I,疑问部分要用 aren't I.
  I'm as tall as your sister,aren't I?
2) 陈述部分的谓语是wish,疑问部分要用may +主语。
  I wish to have a word with you, may I?
3) 陈述部分用 no, nothing, nobody, never, few, seldom, hardly, rarely, little等否定含义的词时,疑问部分用肯定含义。
  The Swede made no answer, did he / she?
  Some plants never blown (开花), do they ?
4) 含有ought to 的反意疑问句,陈述部分是肯定的,疑问部分用shouldn't / oughtn't +主语。
  He ought to know what to do, oughtn't he? / shouldn't he?
5) 陈述部分有have to +v. (had to + v.),疑问部分常用don't +主语(didn't +主语)。
  We have to get there at eight tomorrow, don't we?
6) 陈述部分的谓语是used to 时,疑问部分用didn't +主语或 usedn't +主语。
  He used to take pictures there, didn't he? / usedn't he?
7) 陈述部分有had better + v. 疑问句部分用hadn't you?
  You'd better read it by yourself, hadn't you?
8) 陈述部分有would rather +v.,疑问部分多用 wouldn't +主语。
  He would rather read it ten times than recite it, wouldn't he?
9) 陈述部分有You'd like to +v. 疑问部分用wouldn't +主语。
  You'd like to go with me, wouldn't you?
10) 陈述部分有must 的疑问句,疑问部分根据实际情况而定。
  He must be a doctor, isn't he?
  You must have studied English for three years, haven't you? / didn't you?
  He must have finished it yesterday, didn't he?
11) 感叹句中,疑问部分用be +主语。
  What colours, aren't they?
  What a smell, isn't it?
12) 陈述部分由neither… nor, either… or 连接的并列主语时,疑问部分根据其实际逻辑意义而定。
Neither you nor I am engineer, are we?
13) 陈述部分主语是指示代词或不定代词everything, that, nothing, this, 疑问部分主语用it。
  Everything is ready, isn't it?

14)  陈述部分为主语从句或并列复合句,疑问部分有三种情况:
 a. 并列复合句疑问部分,谓语动词根据邻近从句的谓语而定。
  Mr. Smith had been to Beijing for several times, he should have been in China now, shouldn't he?
 b. 带有定语从句,宾语从句的主从复合句,疑问部分谓语根据主句的谓语而定:
  He is not the man who gave us a talk, is he?
  He said he wanted to visit Japan, didn't he?
 c. 上述部分主句谓语是think, believe, expect, suppose, imagine等引导的定语从句,疑问部分与宾语从句相对应构成反意疑问句。
  I don't think he is bright, is he?
  We believe she can do it better, can't she?

15) 陈述部分主语是不定代词everybody, anyone, somebody, nobody, no one等,疑问部分常用复数they,有时也用单数he。
  Everyone knows the answer, don't they? (does he?)
  Nobody knows about it, do they? (does he?)

16) 带情态动词dare或need的反意疑问句,疑问部分常用 need (dare ) +主语。
  We need not do it again, need we ?
  He dare not say so, dare you?
  当dare, need 为实义动词时,疑问部分用助动词do + 主语。
  She doesn't dare to go home alone, does she?

17) 省去主语的祈使句的反意疑问句,疑问部分用will you。
  Don't do that again, will you?
  Go with me, will you / won't you ?
注意: Let's 开头的祈使句,后用shall we?
  Let us 开头的祈使句,后用will you?
  Let's go and listen to the music, shall we?
  Let us wait for you in the reading-room, will you ?

18) 陈述部分是"there be"结构的,疑问部分用there省略主语代词。
  There is something wrong with your watch, isn't there?
  There will not be any trouble, will there?

19) 否定前缀不能视为否定词,其反意疑问句仍用否定形式。
  It is impossible, isn't it?
  He is not unkind to his classmates, is he?

20) must在表"推测"时,根据其推测的情况来确定反意疑问句。
  He must be there now, isn't he?
  It must be going to rain tomorrow, won't it?


        快速记忆表
陈述部分的谓语      疑问部分          
     I          aren't I        
    Wish         may +主语          
no,nothing,nobody,never,  
few, seldom, hardly,     肯定含义
rarely, little等否定
含义的词                       
ought to(肯定的)    shouldn't/ oughtn't +主语  
have to+v.(had to+v.)  don't +主语(didn't +主语)  
used to        didn't +主语或 usedn't +主语  
had better + v.     hadn't you         
would rather + v.    wouldn't +主语       
you'd like to + v.    wouldn't +主语       
must           根据实际情况而定      
感叹句中         be +主语          
Neither…nor,
either…or 连接的根   据其实际逻辑意义而定
并列主语                       
指示代词或不定代词
everything,that,      主语用it
nothing,this                      
并列复合句       谓语根据邻近从句的谓语而定  
定语从句,宾语从句的
主从复合句       根据主句的谓语而定      
think,believe,expect,
suppose,imagine等引导  与宾语从句相对应的从句    
everybody,anyone,
somebody,nobody,no one  复数they, 单数he      
情态动词dare或need    need (dare ) +主语
dare, need 为实义动词     do +主语        
省去主语的祈使句     will you?
Let's 开头的祈使句    Shall we?
Let us 开头的祈使句   Will you?          
there be   相应的谓语动词+there(省略主语代词)  
否定前缀不能视为否定词    仍用否定形式      
must表"推测"   根据其推测的情况来确定反意疑问句  


14. 倒装

14.1 倒装句之全部倒装


 全部倒装是只将句子中的谓语动词全部置于主语之前。此结构通常只用与一般现在时和 一般过去时。常见的结构有:
 1) here, there, now, then, thus等副词置于句首, 谓语动词常用be, come, go, lie, run。
  There goes the bell.
  Then came the chairman.
  Here is your letter.
 2) 表示运动方向的副词或地点状语置于句首,谓语表示运动的动词。
  Out rushed a missile from under the bomber.
  Ahead sat an old woman.
 注意:上述全部倒装的句型结构的主语必须是名词,如果主语是人称代词则不能完全倒装。
   Here he comes.    Away they went.



14.1 倒装句之全部倒装

 全部倒装是只将句子中的谓语动词全部置于主语之前。此结构通常只用与一般现在时和 一般过去时。常见的结构有:
 1) here, there, now, then, thus等副词置于句首, 谓语动词常用be, come, go, lie, run。
  There goes the bell.
  Then came the chairman.
  Here is your letter.


 2) 表示运动方向的副词或地点状语置于句首,谓语表示运动的动词。
  Out rushed a missile from under the bomber.
  Ahead sat an old woman.


 注意:上述全部倒装的句型结构的主语必须是名词,如果主语是人称代词则不能完全倒装。
   Here he comes.   Away they went.


14.2 倒装句之部分倒装

  部分倒装是指将谓语的一部分如助动词或情态倒装至主语之前。如果句中的谓语没有助动词或情态动词,则需添加助动词do, does或did,并将其置于主语之前。


 1) 句首为否定或半否定的词语,如no, not, never, seldom, little, hardly, at no time, in no way, not until… 等。
  Never have I seen such a performance.
  Nowhere will you find the answer to this question.
  Not until the child fell asleep did the mother leave the room.
 当Not until引出主从复合句,主句倒装,从句不倒装。

注意: 如否定词不在句首不倒装。
   I have never seen such a performance.
   The mother didn't leave the room until the child fell asleep.

典型例题  

1) Why can't I smoke here?
  At no time___ in the meeting-room
A. is smoking permitted  B. smoking is permitted
C. smoking is it permitted D. does smoking permit
答案A. 这是一个倒装问题。当否定词语置于句首以表示强调时,其句中的主谓须用倒装结构。 这些否定词包括no, little, hardly, seldom, never, not only, not until等。本题的正常语序是 Smoking is permitted in the meeting-room at no time.

2) Not until the early years of the 19th century ___ what heat is.
  A. man did know  B. man know  C. didn't man know  D. did man know
 答案D.  看到Not until…的句型,我们知道为一倒装句,答案在C,D 中选一个。
 改写为正常语序为,Man did not know what heat is until the early years of the 19th. 现在将not提前,后面就不能再用否定了,否则意思就变了。


14.3 以否定词开头作部分倒装

  如 Not only…but also, Hardly/Scarcely…when, No sooner… than
  Not only did he refuse the gift, he also severely criticized the sender.
  Hardly had she gone out when a student came to visit her.
  No sooner had she gone out than a student came to visit her.

典型例题
No sooner___ than it began to rain heavily.
A. the game began      B. has the game begun
C. did the game begin    D. had the game begun
答案D. 以具有否定意义的副词放在句首时,一般采用倒装句(谓语前置)。这类表示否定意义的词有never, seldom, scarcely, little, few, not, hardly, 以及not only…but (also), no sooner…than, hardly… when scarcely… when 等等。

注意:只有当Not only… but also连接两个分句时,才在第一个分句用倒装结构。如果置于句首的Not only… but also仅连接两个并列词语,不可用倒装结构。
  Not only you but also I am fond of music.


14.4 so, neither, nor作部分倒装

  表示"也"、"也不" 的句子要部分倒装。    
  Tom can speak French. So can Jack.
  If you won't go, neither will I.

典型例题
 ---Do you know Jim quarrelled with his brother?
 ---I don't know, _____.
 A. nor don't I care  B. nor do I care  C. I don't care neither  D. I don't care also
答案:B. nor为增补意思"也不关心",因此句子应倒装。A错在用 don't 再次否定, C neither 用法不对且缺乏连词。 D缺乏连词。


  注意: 当so引出的句子用以对上文内容加以证实或肯定时,不可用倒装结构。意为"的确如此"。
  Tom asked me to go to play football and so I did.
  ---It's raining hard.   ---So it is.

14.5 only在句首要倒装的情况

  Only in this way, can you learn English well.
  Only after being asked three times did he come to the meeting.
  如果句子为主从复合句,则主句倒装,从句不倒装
  Only when he is seriously ill, does he ever stay in bed.

14.6 as, though 引导的倒装句

  as / though引导的让步从句必须将表语或状语提前 (形容词, 副词, 分词, 实义动词提前)。

注意:
    1) 句首名词不能带任何冠词。
    2) 句首是实义动词, 其他助动词放在主语后。如果实义动词有宾语和状语,  随实义动词一起放在主语之前。
   Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily.

注意:
  让步状语从句中,有though,although时,后面的主句不能有but,但是 though 和yet可连用
14.7 其他部分倒装

1)  so… that 句型中的so 位于句首时,需倒装。
   So frightened was he that he did not dare to move an inch.

2) 在某些表示祝愿的句型中:
  May you all be happy.

3) 在虚拟语气条件句中从句谓语动词有were, had, should等词,可将if 省略,把 were, had, should 移到主语之前,采取部分倒装。
  Were I you, I would try it again.

典型例题:
1) Not until the early years of the 19th century___ what heat is  
A. man did know  B. man knew  C. didn't man know  D. did man know
答案为D. 否定词Not在句首,要求用部分倒装的句子结构。

2) Not until I began to work ___ how much time I had wasted. 
A. didn't I realize  B. did I realize  C. I didn't realize D. I realize
 答案为B。

3) Do you know Tom bought a new car?
 I don't know, ___.
 A. nor don't I care  B. nor do I care 
 C. I don't care neither D. I don't care also
 解析:答案为B. 句中的nor引出部分倒装结构,表示"也不"。由 so, neither, nor引导的倒装句,表示前一情况的重复出现。其中, so用于肯定句, 而 neither, nor 用在否定句中。
15. 主谓一致

  主谓一致是指:
1) 语法形式上要一致,即单复数形式与谓语要一致。
2) 意义上要一致,即主语意义上的单复数要与谓语的单复数形式一致。
3) 就近原则,即谓语动词的单复形式取决于最靠近它的词语,


  一般来说,不可数名词用动词单数,可数名词复数用动词复数。
  There is much water in the thermos.
  但当不可数名词前有表示数量的复数名词时,谓语动词用复数形式。
  Ten thousand tons of coal were produced last year.
15.1 并列结构作主语时谓语用复数

  Reading and writing are very important.


 注意: 当主语由and连结时,如果它表示一个单一的概念,即指同一人或同一物时,谓语动词用单数,and 此时连接的两个词前只有一个冠词。
 The iron and steel industry is very important to our life.

典型例题
 The League secretary and monitor ___ asked to make a speech at the meeting.
A. is  B. was  C. are  D. were
答案B. 注: 先从时态上考虑。这是过去发生的事情应用过去时,先排除A.,C.。本题易误选D,因为The League secretary and monitor 好象是两个人,但仔细辨别, monitor 前没有the,在英语中,当一人兼数职时只在第一个职务前加定冠词。后面的职务用and 相连。这样本题主语为一个人,所以应选B。

15.2 主谓一致中的靠近原则

1)当there be 句型的主语是一系列事物时,谓语应与最邻近的主语保持一致。
 There is a pen, a knife and several books on the desk..
 There are twenty boy-students and twenty-three girl-students in the class.

2)当either… or… 与neither… nor, 连接两个主语时,谓语动词与最邻近的主语保持一致。 如果句子是由here, there引导,而主语又不止一个时,谓语通常也和最邻近的主语一致。
 Either you or she is to go.
 Here is a pen, a few envelops and some paper for you.

15.3 谓语动词与前面的主语一致

  当主语后面跟有with, together with, like, except, but, no less than, as well as 等词引起的短语时,谓语动词与前面的主语一致。
  The teacher together with some students is visiting the factory.
  He as well as I wants to go boating.


15.4 谓语需用单数

1) 代词each和由every, some, no, any等构成的复合代词作主语,或主语中含有each, every, 谓语需用单数。
  Each of us has a tape-recorder.
  There is something wrong with my watch.

2) 当主语是一本书或一条格言时,谓语动词常用单数。
  The Arabian Night is a book known to lovers of English.
  阿拉丁是英语爱好者熟悉的一本好书。

3) 表示金钱,时间,价格或度量衡的复合名词作主语 时,通常把这些名词看作一个整体,谓语一般用单数。(用复数也可,意思不变。)
  Three weeks was allowed for making the necessary preparations.
  Ten yuan is enough.

15.5 指代意义决定谓语的单复数

1) 在代词what, which, who, none, some, any, more, most, all等词的单复数由其指代的词的单复数决定。
   All is right.    (一切顺利。)
   All are present.  (所有人都到齐了。)

2) 集体名词作主语时,谓语的数要根据主语的意思来决定。如family, audience, crew, crowd, class, company, committee等词后用复数形式时,意为这个集体中的各个成员,用单数时表示该个集体。
   His family isn't very large.  他家不是一个大家庭。
   His family are music lovers. 他的家人都是音乐爱好者。
  但集合名词people, police, cattle, poultry等在任何情况下都用复数形式。
  Are there any police around?

3)有些名词,如variety, number, population, proportion, majority 等有时看作单数,有时看作复数。
 A number of +名词复数+复数动词。
 The number of +名词复数+单数动词。
 A number of books have lent out.
 The majority of the students like English.

15.6 与后接名词或代词保持一致

1) 用half of, part of, most of, a portion of 等词引起主语时,动词通常与of后面的名词,代词保持一致。
 Most of his money is spent on books.
 Most of the students are taking an active part in sports.

2) 在一些短语,如 many a 或 more than one 所修饰的词作主语时,谓语动词多用单数形式。但由more than… of 作主语时,动词应与其后的名词或代词保持一致。
  Many a person has read the novel. 许多人都读过这本书。
  More than 60 percent of the students are from the city.百分之六十多的学生都来自这个城市。

16. 虚拟语气

1) 概念
   虚拟语气用来表示说话人的主观愿望或假想,所说的是一个条件,不一定是事实,或与事实相反。

2) 在条件句中的应用
   条件句可分为两类,一类为真实条件句,一类为非真实条件句。非真实条件句表示的是假设的或实际可能性不大的情况,故采用虚拟语气。

16.1 真实条件句

  真实条件句用于陈述语气,假设的情况可能发生,其中 if 是如果的意思。
 
  时态关系
句型: 条件从句    主句
   一般现在时   shall/will + 动词原形
 If he comes, he will bring his violin.

典型例题
 The volleyball match will be put off if it ___. 
A. will rain  B. rains  C. rained  D. is rained
 答案B。真实条件句主句为将来时,从句用一般现在时。

注意:
1) 在真实条件句中,主句不能用be going to表示将来,该用shall, will.
 (错) If you leave now, you are never going to regret it.
 (对) If you leave now, you will never regret it.
 2) 表示真理时,主句谓语动词便不用shall (will) +动词原形,而直接用一般现在时的动词形式。
16.2 非真实条件句

1)时态:可以表示过去,现在和将来的情况。它的基本特点是时态退后。
a.  同现在事实相反的假设。
句型 : 条件从句     主句
    一般过去时   should( would) +动词原形
  If they were here, they would help you.

b.  表示于过去事实相反的假设。
句型: 条件从句      主句     
   过去完成时    should(would) have+ 过去分词
  If she had worked harder, she would have succeeded.  
  The rice would not have been burnt if you had been more careful. 
  If my lawyer had been here last Saturday, he would have prevented me from going.


  If he had come yesterday, I should / would have told him about it.
  含义:He did not come yesterday, so I did not tell him about it.
  If he had not been ill and missed many classes, he would have made greater progress.
  含义: He was ill and missed many lessons, so he did not make greater progress. 

c.  表示对将来的假想
 句型:  条件从句       主句
     一般过去时      should+ 动词原形
     were+ 不定式     would + 动词原形
     should+ 动词原形
 If you succeeded, everything would be all right.
 If you should succeed, everything would be all right.
 If you were to succeed, everything would be all right.
 
16.3 混合条件句

  主句与从句的动作发生在不同的时间,这时主,从句谓语动词的虚拟语气形式因时间不同而不同,这叫做混合条件句。
  If you had asked him yesterday, you would know what to do now.
  (从句与过去事实相反,主句与现在事实相反。)
  If it had rained last night (过去), it would be very cold today (现在).

16.4 虚拟条件句的倒装

  虚拟条件句的从句部分如果含有were, should, 或had, 可将if省略,再把were, should或had 移到从句句首,实行倒装。
  Were they here now, they could help us.
 =If they were here now, they could help us.
  Had you come earlier, you would have met him
 =If you had come earlier, you would have met him. 
  Should it rain, the crops would be saved.
 =Were it to rain, the crops would be saved.

注意:
  在虚拟语气的从句中,动词'be'的过去时态一律用"were",不用was, 即在从句中be用were代替。
  If I were you, I would go to look for him.
   如果我是你,就会去找他。
  If he were here, everything would be all right.
   如果他在这儿,一切都会好的。

典型例题
 _____ to do the work, I should do it some other day.
A. If were I   B. I were C. Were I D. Was I
  答案C. 在虚拟条件状语中如果有were, should, had这三个词,通常将if省略,主语提前, 变成 were, should, had +主语的形式。但要注意,在虚拟条件状语从句中,省略连词的倒装形式的句首不能用动词的缩略形式。如我们可说 Were I not to do., 而不能说 Weren't I to do.

16.5 特殊的虚拟语气词:should

1) It is demanded / necessary / a pity + that…结构中的主语从句的谓语动词要用should 加动词原形, should 可省略。

句型:
    (1)suggested
It is  (2)important    that…+ (should) do
    (3) a pity

(1)suggested, ordered, proposed, required,  demanded, requested, insisted; + (should) do
(2)important, necessary, natural, strange
a pity,  a shame,  no wonder
(3)It is suggested that we (should) hold a meeting next week.


  It is necessary that he (should) come to our meeting tomorrow.

2)在宾语从句中的应用
  在表示命令、建议、要求等一类动词后面的从句中。
order, suggest, propose, require, demand, request, insist, command, insist + (should) do
  I suggest that we (should) hold a meeting next week.
  He insisted that he (should ) be sent there.


 注意: 如suggest, insist不表示"建议" 或"坚持要某人做某事时",即它们用于其本意"暗示、表明"、"坚持认为"时,宾语从句用陈述语气。
  The guard at gate insisted that everybody obey the rules. 

 判断改错:
 (错) You pale face suggests that you (should) be ill.
  (对)  Your pale face suggests that you are ill.
  (错)  I insisted that you ( should) be wrong.
  (对)  I insisted that you were wrong.

3)在表语从句,同位语从句中的应用
  在suggestion, proposal, idea, plan, order, advice等名词后面的表语从句、同位语从句中要用虚拟语气,即(should)+动词原形。
   My idea is that we (should) get more people to attend the conference.
   I make a proposal that we (should) hold a meeting next week.
16.6 wish的用法

1)用于wish后面的从句,表示与事实相反的情况,或表示将来不太可能实现的愿望。其宾语从句的动词形式为:

              真实状况 wish后      
从句动作先于主句动词动作  现在时  过去时
(be的过去式为 were)                 
从句动作与主句动作同时发生 过去时  过去完成时
(had + 过去分词)                  
将来不大可能实现的愿望   将来时 would/could +
                   动词原形    

 I wish I were as tall as you. 我希望和你一样高。
 He wished he hadn't said that. 他希望他没讲那样的话。
 I wish it would rain tomorrow. 我希望明天下雨就好了。

2)Wish to do表达法。
  Wish sb / sth to do
  I wish to see the manager. = I want to see the manager.
  I wish the manager to be informed at once. (= I want the manager to be informed at once.)

16.7 比较if only与only if

  only if表示"只有";if only则表示"如果……就好了"。If only也可用于陈述语气。
  I wake up only if the alarm clock rings. 只有闹钟响了,我才会醒。
  If only the alarm clock had rung.   当时闹钟响了,就好了。
  If only he comes early.       但愿他早点回来。


16.8 It is (high) time that

  It is (high) time that 后面的从句谓语动词要用过去式或用should加动词原形,但should不可省略。
  It is time that the children went to bed.
  It is high time that the children should go to bed.

16.9 need "不必做"和"本不该做"

 didn't need to do表示: 过去不必做某事, 事实上也没做。.
 needn't have done表示: 过去不必做某事, 但事实上做了。
 John went to the station with the car to meet Mary, so she didn't need to walk back home. 约翰开车去车站接玛丽,所以她不必步行回家了。
 John went to the station with the car to meet Mary, so she needn't have walked back home. 约翰开车去车站接玛丽,所以她本不必步行回家了。 (Mary步行回家,没有遇上John的车。)

典型例题
 There was plenty of time. She ___.
A. mustn't have hurried  B. couldn't have hurried  C. must not hurry  D. needn't have hurried
 答案D。needn't have done. 意为"本不必",即已经做了某事,而时实际上不必要。
 Mustn't have done 用法不正确,对过去发生的事情进行否定性推断应为couldn't have done, "不可能已经"。 must not do 不可以(用于一般现在时)。


17. 名词性从句

  在句子中起名词作用的句子叫名词从句 (Noun Clauses)。 名词从句的功能相当于名词词组, 它在复合句中能担任主语、宾语、表语、同位语、介词宾语等,因此根据它在句中不同的语法功能,名词从句又可分别称为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。

17.1 引导名词性从句的连接词

 引导名词性从句的连接词可分为三类:
   连接词:that,whether,if 不充当从句的任何成分)
   连接代词:what, whatever, who, whoever, whom,
        whose, which.
   连接副词:when, where, how, why
   不可省略的连词:
    1. 介词后的连词
    2. 引导主语从句和同位语从句的连词不可省略。
     That she was chosen made us very happy.
     We heard the news that our team had won.
 比较:whether与if 均为"是否"的意思。 但在下列情况下,whether 不能被if 取代:
1. whether引导主语从句并在句首
2. 引导表语从句
3. whether从句作介词宾语
4. 从句后有"or not"
   Whether he will come is not clear.


  大部分连接词引导的主语从句都可以置于句末,用 it充当形式主语。
  It is not important who will go.
  It is still unknown which team will win the match.


17.2 名词性that-从句

1)由从属连词that引导的从句叫做名词性that-从句。 That只起连接主句和从句的作用,在从句中不担任任何成分,本身也没有词义。名词性that-从句在句中能充当主 语、宾语、表语、同位语和形容词宾语,例如:
  主语:That he is still alive is sheer luck.  他还活着全靠运气。
  宾语:John said that he was leaving for London on Wednesday. 约翰说他星期三要到伦敦去。
  表语:The fact is that he has not been seen recently.   事实是近来谁也没有见过他。
  同位语:The fact that he has not been seen recently disturbs everyone in his office.
       近来谁也没有见过他,这一事实令办公室所有的人不安。
  形容词宾语:I am glad that you are satisfied with your job.
       你对工作满意我感到很高兴。

2)That-从句作主语通常用it作先行词,而将that-从句置于句末,例如:
  It is quite clear that the whole project is doomed to failure. 很清楚,整个计划注定要失败。
  It's a pity that you should have to leave. 你非走不可真是件憾事。
  
  用it作形式主语的that-从句有以下四种不同的搭配关系:
  a. It + be +形容词+ that-从句
   It is necessary that…    有必要……
   It is important that…    重要的是……
   It is obvious that…     很明显……


  b. It + be + -ed 分词+ that-从句
   It is believed that…     人们相信……
   It is known to all that…   从所周知……
   It has been decided that…   已决定……


  c. It + be +名词+ that-从句
   It is common knowledge that…  ……是常识
   It is a surprise that…   令人惊奇的是……
   It is a fact that…     事实是……


  d. It +不及物动词+ that-分句
   It appears that…      似乎……
   It happens that…      碰巧……
   It occurred to me that…   我突然想起……

17.3 名词性wh-从句

1)由wh-词引导的名词从句叫做名词性wh-从句。Wh-词包括who, whom,. whose, whoever, what, whatever, which, whichever等连接代词和where, when, how, why等连接副词。Wh-从句的语法功能除了和that-从句一样外,还可充当介词宾语、宾语补语和间接宾语等,例如:

主语: How the book will sell depends on its author. 书销售如何取决于作者本人。

直接宾语:In one's own home one can do what one likes. 在自己家里可以随心所欲。

间接宾语:The club will give whoever wins a prize. 
俱乐部将给得胜者设奖。

表语: My question is who will take over president of the Foundation. 我的问题是谁将接任该基金会主席职位。

宾语补足语:She will name him whatever she wants to. 她高兴给他起什么名字就取什么名字。

同位语:  I have no idea when he will return. 
我不知道他什么时候回来。

形容词宾语:I'm not sure why she refused their invitation.  我尚不能肯定她为什么拒绝他们的邀请。

介词宾语: That depends on where we shall go. 
那取决于我们去哪儿。

2)Wh-从句作主语也常用先行词it做形式主语,而将wh-从句置于句末,例如:
 It is not yet decided who will do that job. 
 还没决定谁做这项工作。
 It remains unknown when they are going to get married.  他们何时结婚依然不明。
17.4 if, whether引导的名词从句

1)yes-no型疑问从句
  从属连词if, whether引导的名词从句是由一般疑问句或选择疑问转化而来的,因此也分别被称为yes-no型疑问句从句和选择型疑问从句,其功能和wh-从句的功能相同, 例如:
 主语:Whether the plan is feasible remains to be proved. 这一计划是否可行还有等证实。


 宾语:Let us know whether / if you can finish the article before Friday. 请让我们知道你是否能在星期五以前把文章写完。


 表语:The point is whether we should lend him the money. 问题在于我们是否应该借钱给他。


 同位语:They are investigating the question whether the man is trustworthy. 他们调查他是否值得信赖。


 形容词宾语: She's doubtful whether we shall be able to come.  她怀疑我们是否能够前来。


 介词宾语: I worry about whether he can pass through the crisis of his illness.  我担心他是否能度过疾病的危险期。

2)选择性疑问从句
  选择性疑问从句由关联词if/whether…or或whethe…or not构成,例如:
  Please tell me whether / if they are Swedish or Danish. 请告诉我他们是瑞典人还是丹麦人。
  I don't care whether you like the plan or not.我不在乎你是否喜欢该计划。


17.5 否定转移

1) 将think, believe, suppose, expect, fancy, imagine等动词后面宾语从句的否定词转移到主句中,即主句的谓语动词用否定式,而从句的谓语动词用肯定式。
  I don't think I know you. 我想我并不认识你。
  I don' t believe he will come. 我相信他不回来。
注意:若谓语动词为hope,宾语从句中的否定词不能转移。
  I hope you weren't ill. 我想你没有生病吧。

2) 将seem, appear 等后的从句的否定转移到前面。
  It doesn't seem that they know where to go.
  看来他们不知道往哪去。
  It doesn't appear that we'll have a sunny day tomorrow.
  看来我们明天不会碰上好天气。

3) 有时将动名词,介词短语或整个从句的否定转变为对谓语动词的否定。
  I don't remember having ever seen such a man. 
  我记得从未见过这样一个人。 (not否定动名词短语 having…)
  It's not a place where anyone would expect to see strange characters on the street.
  在这里,人们不会想到在街上会碰上陌生的人。
 (anyone 作主语,从句中的谓语动词不能用否定形式。)

4) 有时状语或状语从句中否定可以转移到谓语动词前。
  The ant is not gathering this for itself alone. (否定状语) 蚂蚁不只是为自己采食。


  He was not ready to believe something just because Aristotle said so. (否定because状语) 他并不因亚里斯多德说过如何如何,就轻信此事。


 She had not been married many weeks when that man's younger brother saw her and was struck by her beauty. (否定状语many weeks) 她结婚还不到几个月,这个人的弟弟就看见她了,并对她的美貌着了迷。

18. 定语从句

  定语从句(Attributive Clauses)在句中做定语,修饰一个名词或代词,被修饰的名词,词组或代词即先行词。定语从句通常出现在先行词之后,由关系词(关系代词或关系副词)引出。
  关系代词有:who, whom, whose, that, which等。
  关系副词有:when, where, why等。

18.1 关系代词引导的定语从句

  关系代词所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词,并在句中充当主语、宾语、定语等成分。关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致。
1)who, whom, that
  这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词,在从句中所起作用如下:
  Is he the man who/that wants to see you?
他就是想见你的人吗?(who/that在从句中作主语)
  He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday.
他就是我昨天见的那个人。(whom/that在从句中作宾语)

2) Whose 用来指人或物,(只用作定语, 若指物,它还可以同of which互换), 例如:
  They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down.  那人车坏了,大家都跑过去帮忙。
  Please pass me the book whose (of which) cover is green. 请递给我那本绿皮的书。

3)which, that
  它们所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语等,例如:
  A prosperity which / that had never been seen before appears in the countryside. 农村出现了前所未有的繁荣。(which / that在句中作宾语)
  The package (which / that) you are carrying is about to come unwrapped. 你拿的包快散了。(which / that在句中作宾语)

18.2 关系副词引导的定语从句

  关系副词可代替的先行词是时间、地点或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。
1)when, where, why
  关系副词when, where, why的含义相当于"介词+ which"结构,因此常常和"介词+ which"结构交替使用,例如:
  There are occasions when (on which) one must yield. 任何人都有不得不屈服的时候。
  Beijing is the place where (in which) I was born. 北京是我的出生地。
  Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer? 这就是他拒绝我们帮助他的理由吗?

2)that代替关系副词
  that可以用于表示时间、地点、方式、理由的名词后取代when, where, why和"介词+ which"引导的定语从句,在口语中that常被省略,例如:
  His father died the year (that / when / in which) he was born. 他父亲在他出生那年逝世了。
  He is unlikely to find the place (that / where / in which) he lived forty years ago. 他不大可能找到他四十年前居住过的地方。


18.3 判断关系代词与关系副词

  方法一: 用关系代词,还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。及物动词后面无宾语,就必须要求用关系代词;而不及物动词则要求用关系副词。例如:
  This is the mountain village where I stayed last year.
  I'll never forget the days when I worked together with you.


  判断改错(注:先显示题,再显示答案,横线;用不同的颜色表示出。)
  (错) This is the mountain village where I visited last year.
  (错) I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside.
  (对) This is the mountain village (which) I visited last year.
  (对) I'll never forget the days (which) I spent in the countryside.


  习惯上总把表地点或时间的名词与关系副词 where, when联系在一起。此两题错在关系词的误用上。


  方法二: 准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状),也能正确选择出关系代词/关系副词。
例1. Is this museum ___ you visited a few days age?
  A. where B. that  C. on which  D. the one
例2. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held.
  A. where  B. that  C. on which  D. the one
答案:例1 D,例2 A

例1变为肯定句: This museum is ___ you visited a few days ago.
例2变为肯定句: This is the museum ___ the exhibition was held.
  在句1中,所缺部分为宾语,而where, that, on which都不能起到宾语的作用,只有the one既做了主句的表语,又可做从句的宾语,可以省略关系代词,所以应选D。
  而句2中, 主、谓、宾俱全,从句部分为句子的状语表地点,既可用副词where,又因 in the museum词组,可用介词in + which 引导地点状语。而此题中,介词on 用的不对,所以选A。
  关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分,先行词在从句中做主、定、宾语时,选择关系代词 (who, whom, that, which, whose); 先行词在从句中做状语时,应选择关系副词 ( where 地点状语,when 时间状语,why 原因状语) 。



18.4 限制性和非限制性定语从句

1) 定语从句有限制性和非限制性两种。限制性定语从句是先行词不可缺少的部分,去掉它主句意思往往不明确;非限制性定语从句是先行词的附加说明,去掉了也不会影响主句的意思,它与主句之间通常用逗号分开,例如:
   This is the house which we bought last month.   这是我们上个月买的那幢房子。(限制性)
   The house, which we bought last month, is very nice.这幢房子很漂亮,是我们上个月买的。(非限制性)
2) 当先行词是专有名词或物主代词和指示代词所修饰时,其后的定语从句通常是非限制性的,例如:
   Charles Smith, who was my former teacher, retired last year. 查理•史密斯去年退休了,他曾经是我的老师。
   My house, which I bought last year, has got a lovely garden. 我去年买的的那幢房子带着个漂亮的花园。
   This novel, which I have read three times, is very touching. 这本小说很动人,我已经读了三遍。

3) 非限制性定语从句还能将整个主句作为先行词, 对其进行修饰, 这时从句谓语动词要用第三人称单数,例如:
   He seems not to have grasped what I meant, which greatly upsets me. 他似乎没抓住我的意思,这使我心烦。
   Liquid water changes to vapor, which is called evaporation. 液态水变为蒸汽,这就叫做蒸发。

说明:关系代词that和关系副词why不能引导非限制性定语从句。
18.5 介词+关系词

1)介词后面的关系词不能省略。
2)that前不能有介词。
3) 某些在从句中充当时间,地点或原因状语的"介词+关系词"结构可以同关系副词when 和where 互换。
  This is the house in which I lived two years ago.
  This is the house where I lived two years ago.
  Do you remember the day on which you joined our club?
  Do you remember the day when you joined our club?


18.6 as, which 非限定性定语从句

  由as, which 引导的非限定性定语从句,as和which可代整个主句,相当于and this或and that。As一般放在句首,which在句中。
  As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health.
  The sun heats the earth, which is very important to us.  

典型例题 
1)Alice received an invitation from her boss, ___came as a surprise.
A. it  B. that  C. which  D. he
  答案C. 此为非限定性从句,不能用 that修饰,而用which.,it 和he 都使后句成为句子,两个独立的句子不能单以逗号连接。况且选he句意不通。

2)The weather turned out to be very good, ___ was more than we could expect.
A. what B. which C. that D. it
  答案B。which可代替句子,用于非限定性定语从句,而what不可。That 不能用于非限定性定语从句,it不为连词,使由逗号连接的两个句子并在一起在英语语法上行不通。

3)It rained hard yesterday, ____ prevented me from going to the park..
A. that B. which  C. as  D. it
 答案B.
  as 和which在引导非限制性定语从句时,这两个关系代词都指主句所表达的整个意思,且在定语从句中都可以作主语和宾语。但不同之处主要有两点:
 (1) as 引导的定语从句可置于句首,而which不可。
 (2) as 代表前面的整个主句并在从句中作主语时,从句中的谓语必须是系动词;若为行为动词,则从句中的关系代词只能用which.。
  在本题中,prevent由于是行为动词,所以正确选项应为B。

As 的用法
例1. the same… as;such…as 中的as 是一种固定结构, 和……一样……。
   I have got into the same trouble as he (has).
例2. as可引导非限制性从句,常带有'正如'。
  As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health.
  As is know, smoking is harmful to one's health.
 As是关系代词。例1中的as作know的宾语;例2中,它充当从句的主语,谓语动词know要用被动式。

18.7 先行词和关系词二合一

 1)Whoever spits in public will be punished here.
   (Whoever 可以用 anyone who 代替)
 2)The parents will use what they have to send their son to technical school.
  (what 可以用all that代替)

18.8 what/whatever;that/what; who/whoever

1)what = the thing which;whatever = anything
   What you want has been sent here.
   Whatever you want makes no difference to me.
2) who= the person that  whoever= anyone who
   (错)Who breaks the law will be punished.
   (错)Whoever robbed the bank is not clear.
   (对)Whoever breaks the law will be punished.
   (对)Who robbed the bank is not clear.
3) that 和 what 
  当that引导定语从句时 ,通常用作关系代词,而引导名词性从句时,是个不充当任何成分的连接词。宾语从句和表语从句中的that常可省略。What只能引导名词性从 句, 用作连接代词,作从句的具体成分,且不能省略。
  I think (that) you will like the stamps.
  What we need is more practice.

18.9 关系代词that 的用法

1)不用that的情况
  a) 在引导非限定性定语从句时。
    (错) The tree, that is four hundred years old, is very famous here.
  b) 介词后不能用。
     We depend on the land from which we get our food.
     We depend on the land that/which we get our food from.

2) 只能用that作为定语从句的关系代词的情况
  a) 在there be 句型中,只用that,不用which。
  b) 在不定代词,如:anything, nothing, the one, all, much, few, any, little等作先行词时,只用that,不用which。
  c) 先行词有the only, the very修饰时,只用that。 
  d) 先行词为序数词、数词、形容词最高级时,只用that。.
  e) 先行词既有人,又有物时。

举例:
  All that is needed is a supply of oil.
  所需的只是供油问题。
  Finally, the thief handed everything that he had stolen to the police. 
  那贼最终把偷的全部东西交给了警察。