8.1 stop doing/to do
stop to do 停止，中断做某事后去做另一件事。
stop doing 停止做某事。
They stop to smoke a cigarette. 他们停下来，抽了根烟。
I must stop smoking.. 我必须戒烟了。
She reached the top of the hill and stopped ___ on a big rock by the side of the path.
A. to have rested B. resting C. to rest D. rest
答案：C。由题意可知，她到了山顶，停下来在一个路边的大石头上休息。因此，应选择"stop to do sth. 停下来去做另一件事"。而不仅仅是爬山动作的终止，所以stop doing sth.不正确。
8.2 forget doing/to do
forget to do 忘记要去做某事。 (未做)
forget doing 忘记做过某事。 (已做)
The light in the office is stil on. He forgot to turn it off.
He forgot turning the light off.
他忘记他已经关了灯了。 ( 已做过关灯的动作)
Don't forget to come tomorrow.
别忘了明天来。 (to come动作未做)
---- The light in the office is still on.
---- Oh，I forgot___.
A. turning it off B. turn it off C. to turn it off D. having turned it off
答案：C。由the light is still on 可知灯亮着，即关灯的动作没有发生，因此用forget to do sth.
而forget doing sth表示灯已经关上了，而自己忘记了这一事实。此处不符合题意。
8.3 remember doing/to do
remember to do 记得去做某事 (未做)
remember doing 记得做过某事 (已做)
Remember to go to the post office after school.
Don't you remember seeing the man before?
8.4 regret doing/to do
regret to do 对要做的事遗憾。 (未做)
regret doing 对做过的事遗憾、后悔。 (已做)
I regret to have to do this, but I have no choice.
I don't regret telling her what I thought.
---You were brave enough to raise objections at the meeting.
---Well, now I regret ___ that.
A. to do B. to be doing C. to have done D. having done
答案：D。regret having done sth. 对已发生的事感到遗憾。regret to do sth. 对将要做的事感到遗憾。本题为对已说的话感到后悔，因此选D。
8.5 cease doing/to do
cease to do 长时间，甚至永远停做某事。
cease doing 短时停止做某事，以后还会接着做。
That department has ceased to exist forever.
The girls ceased chatting for a moment when their teacher passed by.
8.6 try doing/to do
try to do 努力，企图做某事。
try doing 试验，试着做某事。
You must try to be more careful.
I tried gardening but didn't succeed.
8.7 go on doing/to do
go on to do 做了一件事后，接着做另一件事。
go on doing 继续做原来做的事。
After he had finished his maths，he went on to do his physics.
Go on doing the other exercise after you have finished this one.
8.8 be afraid doing/to do
be afraid to do 不敢，胆怯去做某事，是主观上的原因不去做，意为"怕"；
be afraid of doing 担心出现doing的状况、结果。 doing 是客观上造成的，意为"生怕，恐怕"。
She was afraid to step further in grass because she was afraid of being bitten by a snake.
She was afraid to wake her husband.
She was afraid of waking her husband.
8.9 be interested doing/to do
interested to do 对做某事感兴趣，想了解某事。
interested in doing 对某种想法感兴趣，doing 通常为想法。
I shall be interested to know what happens.
I'm interested in working in Switzerland. Do you have any idea about that?
8.10 mean to doing/to do
mean to do 打算、想
mean doing 意味着
I mean to go, but my father would not allow me to.
To raise wage means increasing purchasing power.
8.11 begin(start) doing/to do
begin / start to do sth
begin / start doing sth.
How old were you when you first started playing the piano?
2) begin, start用进行时时，后面动词用不定式to do
I was beginning to get angry。
3) 在attempt, intend, begin, start 后接know, understand, realize这类动词时，常用不定式to do。
I begin to understand the truth。
It began to melt.
8.12 感官动词 + doing/to do
感官动词 see, watch, observe, notice, look at, hear, listen to, smell, taste, feel + do 表示动作的完整性，真实性；+doing 表示动作的连续性，进行性
I saw him work in the garden yesterday.
I saw him working in the garden yesterday.（强调"我见他正干活"这个动作）
1）They knew her very well. They had seen her ___ up from childhood.
A. grow B. grew C. was growing D. to grow
答案：A。因题意为，他们看着她长大，因此强调的是成长的过程，而非正在长的动作，因此用see sb do sth 句型。
2）The missing boy was last seen ___ near the river.
A. playing B. to be playing C. play D. to play
答案A. 本题强调其动作，正在河边玩，应此用see sb. doing sth句型。
We can see the rising sun. 我们可以看到东升的旭日
He is a retired worker. 他是位退休的工人
分词后置 (i分词词组；ii 个别分词如given, left； iii 修饰不定代词 something等)
There was a girl sitting there. 有个女孩坐在那里
This is the question given. 这是所给的问题
There is nothing interesting. 没有有趣的东西
Most of the people invited to the party were famous scientists.
Most of the artists invited to the party were from South Africa.
1) The first textbook ___ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century.
A. have written B. to be written C. being written D. written
答案D. 书与写作是被动关系，应用过去分词做定语表被动，相当于定语从句 which is written
2）What's the language ____ in Germany?
A. speaking B. spoken C. be spoken D. to speak
spoken是动词speak的过去分词形式，在句中作定语，修饰主语language, spoken 与 language有被动关系。该句可以理解为：
What's the language (which is) spoken in German?
As I didn't receive any letter from him, I gave him a call.
-> Not receiving any letter from him, I gave him a call.
If more attention was given, the trees could have grown better.
-> Given more attention，the trees could have grown better.
1）_____ some officials, Napoleon inspected his army.
A. Followed B. Followed by C. Being followed D. Having been followed
答案B. Napoleon 与follow 之间有被动的含义。being followed除表达被动之外，还有动作正在进行之意。 followed by（被…跟随）。本题可改为： With some officials following, Napoleon inspected his army.
2）There was a terrible noise ___ the sudden burst of light.
A. followed B. following C. to be followed D. being followed
3）_______, liquids can be changed into gases.
A. Heating B. To be heated C. Heated D. Heat
答案C. 本题要选一分词作为状语。现在分词表主动，正在进行的；过去分词表被动的，已经完成的。对于液体来说是加热的受动者，是被动的，因而选C。它相当于一个状语从句 When it is heated，…
(Being ) used for a long time, the book looks old.
Using the book, I find it useful.
有时为使分词短语与主句关系更清楚，可在分词前加连词。 连词有： when，while，if though，after, before, as. 但分词的主语和主句的主语必须为同一个，如：
While waiting there, he saw two pretty girls come out of the building.
waiting 和saw 的主语相同。
I found my car missing. 我发现我的车不见了。
I'll have my watch repaired. 我想把我的手表修一下。
She looked tired with cooking. 她由于忙着做饭，看上去有些疲倦。
He remained standing beside the table. 他依然站在桌旁
generally speaking 一般说来
talking of (speaking of) 说道
strictly speaking 严格的说
judging from 从…判断
all things considered 从整体来看
taking all things into consideration 全面看来
Judging from his face, he must be ill. 从他的脸色看，他一定是病了。
Generally speaking, dogs can run faster than pigs. 总的来说，狗比猪跑得快。 (speaking 并不是dogs 的动作)
Hearing the news, he jumped with joy. 听到这一消息，他高兴得手舞足蹈。
Arriving there, they found the boy dead. 刚一到那儿，他们就发现那男孩死了。
The secretary worked late into the night, ___a long speech for the president.
A. to prepare B. preparing C. prepared D. was preparing
答案B. 此处没有连词，不能选D，否则出现了两个谓语动词worked和was preparing。 只能在B，C中选一个。又因前后两个动作同时发生，且与主语为主动关系，应用现在分词。
While walking in the garden，he hurt his leg. 在花园里散步时他伤了腿。
分词作时间状语，如果先与主动词的动作，且强调先后， 要用having done。
Having finished his homework, he went out.
=As he had finished his homework, he went out.
___ a reply, he decided to write again.
A. Not receiving B. Receiving not C. Not having received D. Having not received
答案C. 本题考查分词的时态与分词的否定式。根据题意判断，分词的动作（接信）发生在谓语动词的动作（决心再写信）之前，因此用分词的完成式。分词的否定式的构成为not +分词，故选C。该句可理解为：Because he had not received a reply, he decided to write again.
He is the man giving you the money. (= who gave you…) 他就是给你钱的那个人。
He is the man stopped by the car. ( = who was stopped by…)
gone, fallen, retired, grown-up, escaped, faded, returned
例: a well-read person. 一个读过许多书的人
a much-travelled may 一个去过许多地方的人
a burnt-out match 烧完了的火柴
The test finished, we began our holiday.
= When the test was finished, we began our holiday.
The president assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow.
= After the president was assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow.
Weather permitting, we are going to visit you tomorrow.
This done, we went home.
The meeting gone over, everyone tired to go home earlier.
He came into the room, his ears red with cold.
He came out of the library, a large book under his arm.
举例: He stood there, his hand raised.
= He stood there, with his hand raise.
The murder was brought in, with his hands ___ behind his back。
A. being tied B. having tied C. to be tied D. tied
答案D. with +名词（代词）+分词+介词短语结构。当分词表示伴随状况时，其主语常常用with来引导。由于本句中名词"手"与分词"绑"是被动关系，因此用过去分词，选D.
当介词是in时，其前后的两个名词均不加任何成分（如物主代词或冠词），也不用复数。但 with 的复合结构不受此限制
A robber burst into the room, knife in hand.
2) 当表人体部位的词做逻辑主语时，及物动词用现在分 词，不及物动词用过去分词。
He lay there, his teeth set, his hand clenched, his eyes looking straight up.
Weather___, we'll go out for a walk.
A permitted B permitting C permits D for permitting
答案B. 本题中没有连词，它不是复合句，也不是并列句。 句中使用了逗号，且we 小写，可知其不是两个简单句。能够这样使用的只有独立主格或with的复合结构。据此判断，本句中使用的是独立结构， 其结构为：名词+分词。 由于permit在这里翻译为'天气允许'，表主动，应用现在分词，故选B。
如果不会判断独立结构作状语的形式，不妨将句子改为条件句，例如本句改为If weather permits, we'll go out for a walk. 然后将if 去掉，再将谓语动词改为非谓语动词即可。
时间状语： every…, sometimes, at…, on Sunday
I leave home for school at 7 every morning.
The earth moves around the sun.
Shanghai lies in the east of China.
Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败。
例：Columbus proved that the earth is round..
I don't want so much.
Ann Wang writes good English but does not speak well.
比较：Now I put the sugar in the cup.
I am doing my homework now.
第一句用一般现在时，用于操作演示或指导说明的示范性动作，表示言行的瞬间动作。再如：Now watch me, I switch on the current and stand back. 第二句中的now是进行时的标志，表示正在进行的动作的客观状况，所以后句用一般现在时。
时间状语有：yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982等。
Where did you go just now?
When I was a child, I often played football in the street.
Whenever the Browns went during their visit, they were given a warm welcome.
It is time for sb. to do sth "到……时间了" "该……了"
It is time sb. did sth. "时间已迟了" "早该……了"
It is time for you to go to bed. 你该睡觉了。
It is time you went to bed. 你早该睡觉了。
would (had) rather sb. did sth. 表示'宁愿某人做某事'
I'd rather you came tomorrow.
4) wish, wonder, think, hope 等用过去时，作试探性的询问、请求、建议等。
I thought you might have some. 我以为你想要一些。
Christine was an invalid all her life.
Christine has been an invalid all her life.
Mrs. Darby lived in Kentucky for seven years.
Mrs. Darby has lived in Kentucky for seven years.
1）动词want, hope, wonder, think, intend 等。
Did you want anything else?
I wondered if you could help me.
2）情态动词 could, would.
Could you lend me your bike?
11.3 used to / be used to
used to + do："过去常常"表示过去习惯性的动作或状态，但如今已不存在。
Mother used not to be so forgetful.
Scarf used to take a walk. (过去常常散步)
be used to + doing： 对……已感到习惯，或"习惯于"，to是介词，后需加名词或动名词。
He is used to a vegetarian diet.
Scarf is used to taking a walk.(现在习惯于散步)
---- Your phone number again? I ___ quite catch it.
---- It's 69568442.
A. didn't B. couldn't C. don't D. can't
答案A. 本句虽没有明确的时间状语，但从语意上看 出，在听的时候没有听懂这个动作发生在过去，因此应用过去时。
1) shall用于第一人称，常被will 所代替。
Which paragraph shall I read first.
Will you be at home at seven this evening?
2) be going to +不定式，表示将来。
What are you going to do tomorrow?
The play is going to be produced next month。
Look at the dark clouds, there is going to be a storm.
3) be +不定式表将来，按计划或正式安排将发生的事。
We are to discuss the report next Saturday.
4) be about to +不定式，意为马上做某事。
He is about to leave for Beijing.
注意：be about to 不能与tomorrow, next week 等表示明确将来时的时间状语连用
11.5 be going to / will
用于条件句时， be going to 表将来
If you are going to make a journey, you'd better get ready for it as soon as possible.
Now if you will take off your clothes, we will fit the new clothes on you in front of the mirror.
11.6 be to和be going to
be to 表示客观安排或受人指示而做某事。
be going to 表示主观的打算或计划。
I am to play football tomorrow afternoon. (客观安排)
I'm going to play football tomorrow afternoon. (主观安排)
1）下列动词：come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return的一般现在时表将来。这主要用来表示在时间上已确定或安排好的事情。
The train leaves at six tomorrow morning.
When does the bus star? It stars in ten minutes.
Here comes the bus. = The bus is coming.
There goes the bell. = The bell is ringing.
When Bill comes (不是will come), ask him to wait for me.
I'll write to you as soon as I arrive there.
4）在动词hope, take care that, make sure that等后。
I hope they have a nice time next week.
Make sure that the windows are closed before you leave the room.
意为："意图"、"打算"、"安排"、常用于人。常用词为 come, go, start, arrive, leave, stay等。
I'm leaving tomorrow.
Are you staying here till next week?
现在完成时用来表示之前已发生或完成的动作或状 态，其结果的确和现在有联系。动作或状态发生在过去 但它的影响现在还存在；也可表示持续到现在的动作或 状态。其构成： have (has) +过去分词。
yesterday, last week，…ago, in1980, in October, just now, 具体的时间状语
this morning, tonight,this April, now, once，before, already, recently，lately
for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till / until, up to now, in past years, always,
3）现在完成时可表示持续到现在的动作或状态，动词一般是延续性的，如live, teach, learn, work, study, know.
过去时常用的非持续性动词有come, go, leave, start, die, finish, become, get married等。
I saw this film yesterday.
I have seen this film.
Why did you get up so early?
Who hasn't handed in his paper?
She has returned from Paris.
She returned yesterday.
He has been in the League for three years.
He has been a League member for three years.
He joined the League three years ago.
I have finished my homework now.
---Will somebody go and get Dr. White?
---He's already been sent for.
句子中如有过去时的时间副词（如 yesterday, last, week, in 1960）时，不能使用现在完成时，要用过去时。
（错）Tom has written a letter to his parents last night.
（对）Tom wrote a letter to his parents last night.
1）It is the first / second time…. that…结构中的从句部分，用现在完成时。
It is the first time that I have visited the city.
It was the third time that the boy had been late.
2）This is the… that…结构，that 从句要用现在完成时.
This is the best film that I've (ever) seen.
This is the first time (that) I've heard him sing. 这是我第一次听他唱歌。
(1) ---Do you know our town at all?
---No, this is the first time I ___ here.
A. was B. have been C. came D. am coming
答案B. This is the first time 后面所加从句应为现在完成时，故选B。
(2) ---Have you ____ been to our town before?
---No, it's the first time I ___ here.
A. even, come B. even, have come C. ever, come D. ever, have come
答案D. ever意为曾经或无论何时，反意词为never，此两词常用于完成时。 This is the largest fish I have ever seen. It is / was the first time +that-clause 的句型中，从句要用完成时。
（错）I have received his letter for a month.
（对）I haven't received his letter for almost a month.
I have lived here for more than twenty years.
I have lived here since I was born..
My aunt has worked in a clinic since 1949.
Some new oilfields have been opened up since 1976.
I have known Xiao Li since she was a little girl.
My brother has been in the Youth League for two years.
I have not heard from my uncle for a long time.
I worked here for more than twenty years.
I have worked here for many years.
1) (对) Tom has studied Russian for three years.
= Tom began to study Russian three years ago, and is still studying it now.
2) (错) Harry has got married for six years.
= Harry began to get married six years ago, and is still getting married now.
显然，第二句不对，它应改为 Harry got married six years ago. 或 Harry has been married for six years.
1) since +过去一个时间点 (如具体的年、月、日期、钟点、1980, last month, half past six)。
I have been here since 1989.
2) since +一段时间+ ago
I have been here since five months ago.
3) since +从句
Great changes have taken place since you left.
Considerable time has elapsed since we have been here.
4) It is +一段时间+ since从句
It is two years since I became a postgraduate student.
延续动词表示经验、经历； 瞬间动词表示行为的结 果，不能与表示段的时间状语连用。
He has completed the work. 他已完成了那项工作。 (表结果)
I've known him since then. 我从那时起就认识他了。(表经历)
2) 用于till / until从句的差异
He didn't come back until ten o'clock.
He slept until ten o'clock.
1. You don't need to describe her. I ___ her several times.
A. had met B. have met C. met D. meet
答案B. 首先本题后句强调对现在的影响，我知道她的模样，你不用描述。再次，several times告知为反复发生的动作，因此用现在完成时。
2.---I'm sorry to keep you waiting.
---Oh, not at all. I ___ here only a few minutes.
A. have been B. had been C. was D. will be
那时以前 那时 现在
a. 在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句。
She said (that) she had never been to Paris.
When the police arrived, the thieves had run away.
c. 表示意向的动词，如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等，用过去完成时表示"原本…，未能…"
We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't.
3) 过去完成时的时间状语before, by, until , when, after, once, as soon as。
He said that he had learned some English before.
By the time he was twelve, Edison had began to make a living by himself.
Tom was disappointed that most of the guests had left when he arrived at the party.
The students ___ busily when Miss Brown went to get a book she ___ in the office.
A. had written, left B，were writing, has left C. had written, had left D. were writing, had left
注意： had no … when 还没等…… 就……
had no sooner… than 刚…… 就……
He had no sooner bought the car than he sold it.
1) 两个动作如按顺序发生，又不强调先后，或用then，and，but 等连词时，多用一般过去时。
When she saw the mouse，she screamed.
My aunt gave me a hat and I lost it.
2 ) 两个动作相继发生，可用一般过去时；如第一个动作需要若干时间完成，用过去完成时。
When I heard the news, I was very excited.
Our teacher told us that Columbus discovered America in 1492.
1) 构成will / be going to do sth.
They will have been married for 20 years by then.
You will have reached Shanghai by this time tomorrow
a. 表示现在( 指说话人说话时) 正在发生的事情。
We are waiting for you.
Mr. Green is writing another novel.
She is learning piano under Mr. Smith.
c. 表示渐变的动词有：get, grow, become, turn, run, go, begin等。
The leaves are turning red.
It's getting warmer and warmer.
d. 与always, constantly, forever 等词连用，表示反复发生的动作或持续存在的状态，往往带有说话人的主观色彩。
You are always changing your mind.
My dictionary ___, I have looked for it everywhere but still___ it.
A. has lost, don't find B. is missing, don't find C. has lost, haven't found D. is missing, haven't found.
have, belong, possess, cost, owe, exist, include, contain, matter, weigh, measure, continue
I have two brothers.
This house belongs to my sister.
Know, realize, think see, believe, suppose, imagine, agree, recognize, remember, want, need, forget, prefer, mean, understand, love, hate
I need your help.
He loves her very much.
3 ) 瞬间动词
accept, receive, complete, finish, give, allow, decide, refuse.
I accept your advice.
seem, remain, lie, see, hear, smell, feel, taste, get, become, turn
You seem a little tired.
this morning, the whole morning, all day yesterday, from nine to ten last evening, when, while
My brother fell while he was riding his bicycle and hurt himself.
It was raining when they left the station.
When I got to the top of the mountain, the sun was shining.
1) Mary ___ a dress when she cut her finger.
A. made B. is making C. was making D. makes
答案C. 割伤手指是已发生的事情，应用过去时。同 时，when表时间的同时性，"玛丽在做衣服时"提供事情发生的背景，因此用过去进行时。
2) As she ___ the newspaper, Granny ___ asleep.
read； was falling B. was reading； fell C. was reading； was falling D. read；fell
答案B.句中的as = when, while，意为"当……之时"。描述一件事发生的背景时，用过去进行；一个长动作发生的时候，另一个短动作发生。句意为 "在她看报纸时，奶奶睡着了。"句中的 fell (fall的过去时)，是系动词，后跟形容词，如：fall sick。
She'll be coming soon.
I'll be meeting him sometime in the future.
注意：将来进行时不用于表示"意志"，不能说 I'll be having a talk with her.
Soon, tomorrow, this evening，on Sunday, by this time，tomorrow, in two days, tomorrow evening
By this time tomorrow, I'll be lying on the beach.
When, while, before, after, till, once, as soon as, so long as, by the time, if, in case (that), unless, even if, whether, the moment, the minute, the day, the year, immediately
He is going to visit her aunt the day he arrives in Beijing. 他一到北京，就去看他姨妈。
(1）He said he________me a present unless I_______ in doing the experiment.
A. had not given; had not succeeded B. would not give; succeed
C. will not give; succeed D. would not give; will succeed.
答案B. 在时间，条件或让步主语从句中一般不用将来时。本题有He said，故为过去式。主句用将来时，故选B. 此处用一般过去式代替了过去将来时。
The museum opens at ten tomorrow. 博物馆明天10点开门。(实际上每天如此。)
The newspaper says that it's going to be cold tomorrow.
Napoleon's army now advances and the great battle begins.
hear, tell, learn, write , understand, forget, know, find , say, remember.
I hear (= have heard) he will go to London.
I forget (=have forgotten) how old he is.
2) 句型 " It is … since…"代替"It has been … since …"
3) It is (= has been) five years since we last met.
1) 句型：Here comes… ； There goes…
Look, here comes Mr. Li.
Are you staying with us this weekend? 这周和我们一起度周末吗?
We are leaving soon. 我们马上就走。
2) 渐变动词，如：get, run, grow, become, begin及die。
He is dying.
At that time, people did not know that the earth moves.
He told me last week that he is eighteen.
2) 宾语从句中的助动词ought, need, must, dare 时态是不变的。
He thought that I need not tell you the truth.
一般现在时 every …, sometimes, at …, on Sunday,
一般过去时 yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982, just now
一般将来时 next…, tomorrow, in+时间,
现在完成时 for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till/until, up to now, in past years, always, recently
过去完成时 before, by, until, when, after, once, as soon as
过去进行时 this morning, the whole morning, all day, yesterday, from nine to ten last evening… when, while
将来进行时 soon, tomorrow, this evening, on Sunday, by this time, tomorrow, in two days, tomorrow evening